An Audit of Management of Chronic Pancreatitis with Pancreatic Ductal Disruption Resulting in Ascites and Pleural Effusion
Dr. Mukund Prabhakar Kulkarni,
Plot No. 43, Kanakadhara, Ashok Nagar, Hubballi, Karnataka, India.
Introduction: Pancreatic Ductal Disruption (PDD) may remain a localised collection to form pseudocyst or dissect into adjacent organs or rupture freely into the peritoneal cavity or pleural cavity resulting in massive or high-volume ascites or pleural effusions. The management of pseudocyst is well known among general and gastrosurgeons, but ascites and plural effusion remain difficult decisions. Depending on the availability of resources total parenteral nutrition, octreotide, pancreatic duct stenting are used with varying success. There are no guidelines as to which intervention is preferable in different clinical scenarios.
Aim: To audit the clinical characters and management of patients with pancreatic ascites and pleural effusion.
Materials and Methods: This study was done at the Department of Surgical Gastroenterology, Karnataka Institute of Medical Sciences, Hubballi, Karnataka, India. Fifty two patients with pancreatic ascites or pancreatico pleural fistula in the background of chronic pancreatitis satisfying both inclusion and exclusion criteria were identified and studied from the prospectively maintained database of patients with chronic pancreatitis in the period from September 2010 to September 2020. The patients were classified as conservatively managed, endoscopic main pancreatic duct stenting or surgery. Statistical analysis was done using windows excel. The results were expressed as percentage, mean and Standard Deviation (SD).
Results: Five patients with ascites and two patients with pleural effusion responded completely to conservative measures (13.4%). In one of them ascites recurred at two months and one had left pleural effusion recurrence at one month. Fifteen patients died while on conservative management (68.2% mortality). Among eight patients undergoing endoscopic pancreatic duct stenting, ascites/pleural effusion resolved in six (75% success rate) and remained asymptomatic during mean follow-up of 12 months. Two patients who were not improving after stenting were lost to follow-up. Twenty-two patients underwent surgery namely lateral pancreatojejunostomy with resolution of symptoms. Two patients undergoing surgery died in postoperative period due to sepsis and chest infection (9.1% mortality). At a mean follow-up of 14 months they remained symptom free.
Conclusion: Conservative management alone has high mortality. Early aggressive management can aim to stop leak either by pancreatic duct stenting or surgical lateral pancreatojejunostomy will help reduce mortality and morbidity