Very Early Onset Severe Preeclampsia and Eclampsia Syndrome with Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome- A Catastrophe QD01-QD03
Dr. Renuka Raina,
E-36, MMIMSR, Mullana, Ambala, Haryana, India.
Early onset severe preeclampsia and eclampsia is a direct cause in the deadly triad of maternal mortality along with haemorrhage and sepsis with high perinatal mortality. Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS) with Recurrent Pregnancy Loss (RPL) may also result in early onset severe preeclampsia, eclampsia and its catastrophic complications. Present report is a rarest case of a 33-year-old, unbooked G6A5 at 21+4 weeks gestation with eclampsia, HELLP (Haemolysis, Elevated liver Enzymes, Low Platelet count) syndrome, Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES), Intrauterine foetal demise (IUFD) with RPL due to APS with Hepatitis B positive status. Patient was managed by a multidisciplinary team of Obstetricians, Intensivists, Cardiologists and Neurologists. Eclampsia was managed with magnesium sulphate (Pritchard’s regime), intravenous labetalol and delivery of stillborn male foetus weighing 645 gm achieved within 24 hours of eclamptic seizure. Lupus anticoagulant and beta-2 glycoprotein IgM (Immnoglobulin M) antibodies were positive in high titres confirming APS. Postdelivery patient had persistent headache with blurring of vision. A diagnosis of PRES was confirmed on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) brain. Patient was put on Levetiracetam and low molecular weight heparin and was discharged in satisfactory condition on seventh postpartum day with an advice to follow-up at two weeks, six weeks and 12 weeks. Early onset preeclampsia is encountered in Obstetrics but very early onset severe preeclampsia (<24 weeks of gestation) and eclampsia with HELLP syndrome, PRES in a patient of RPL due to APS is rarest. Early diagnosis of APS and early onset preeclampsia with timely referral to tertiary care and multidisciplinary management can save women from severe dreaded complications with a good obstetric outcome in future.