Comparison of Lipid Profile in Prediabetic and Non Prediabetic Adult Off-springs of Type 2 Diabetics Patients: A Cross-sectional Study
Atish Bhaskar Pagar,
Prarambh, Bunglow No 3, Bakul Bag, Near Sanglikar Mala, Miraj-416410, Sangli, Maharashtra, India.
Introduction: Lipid abnormality is an important modifiable risk factor associated with the type 2 diabetes mellitus and prediabetes. Dyslipidaemia occurring in diabetic patients, has important role in development of macrovascular atherosclerosis and increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, prediabetes has also been found to be associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Considering the prevalence and increased risk of cardiovascular disease in diabetes, it is becoming necessary to diagnose prediabetic individuals and assess their lipid profile and prevent them from developing overt diabetes and the further complications. Also, data available on lipid abnormalities in prediabetics is relatively less in the Indian population.
Aim: To compare lipid profile in prediabetic and non prediabetic adult off-springs of type 2 diabetics and to evaluate the association between lipid profile and prediabetes.
Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 150 healthy young adult (> 18 years) off-springs of type 2 diabetic patients, willing to participate in the study in Government Medical College and Hospital, Miraj from January 2019 to December 2019. All the relevant information was collected by administering a structured case record form. Fasting blood samples were collected and fasting blood glucose level, lipid profile including Total cholesterol (TC), Triglycerides (TG), Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL), High Density Lipoproteins (HDL), Very Low-Density Lipoproteins (VLDL), were estimated and compared. Data collected was entered in the Microsoft excel (2010), expressed as frequency and mean. Chi-square test and Fisher’s exact test were applied to observe the association between different study parameters. A p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results: Prevalence of prediabetes was 17.3% (fasting BLS 100 to 125 mg/dL) in age group of 26 to 30 years (26.67%). It was found that occurrence of prediabetes was more in male participants (25.37%) as compared to female participants (10.84%). Association between gender of the participants and occurrence of prediabetes was found to be statistically significant (p-value=0.019). The association between prediabetes and higher TC levels (mean-204.88±47.99 and 152.46±29.35 mg/dL), lower HDL levels (mean-57.65±4.59 and 66.18±6.02 mg/dL), higher LDL levels (mean-94.77±30.71 and 69.57±17.88 mg/dL), higher VLDL levels (mean-128.08±49.96 and 39.52±39.99 mg/dL) was found to be statistically significant (p-value<0.05) and the association between prediabetes and higher TG levels (mean-48.65±18.45 and 28.18±9.47 mg/dL) was not significant (p-value=0.056).
Conclusion: Total cholesterol, LDL, TG, VLDL were significantly raised, whereas HDL was significantly lower in prediabetic subjects as compared to non prediabetic healthy subjects. The association between prediabetes and higher TC levels, lower HDL levels, higher LDL levels, higher VLDL levels was found to be statistically significant (p-value<0.05) and the association between prediabetes and higher TG levels was not significant (p-value=0.056). So, prediabetic individuals, though asymptomatic have significant dyslipidaemia, that puts them at higher risk for developing cardiovascular disease.