Transurethral Holmium Laser Cystolithotripsy Under Local Anaesthesia in Adult Patients: A Prospective Observational Study at a Tertiary Care Centre in North-east India
Dr. Stephen Lalfakzuala Sailo,
A-19, Faculty Quarters, Neigrihms, Mawdiangdiang, Shillong, Meghalaya, India.
Introduction: Urinary bladder stones comprise 5% of all urinary stones. Various modalities for the treatment of symptomatic bladder stones are available. They are open cystolithotomy, extra corporeal shock wave lithotripsy, cystolitholapaxy, suprapubic or transurethral cystolithotripsy using various energy sources. Presently transurethral Holmium laser cystolithotripsy is considered as the treatment of choice for symptomatic bladder stones.
Aim: To report the experience of holmium laser cystolithotripsy for the treatment of symptomatic urinary bladder stones under local anaesthesia in adult patients.
Materials and Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted on 86 patients at Department of Urology, North-Eastern Indira Gandhi Regional Institute of Health and Medical Sciences (NEIGRIHMS), Shillong, Meghalaya, India, between June 2016 and August 2019. It included consecutive adult patients with symptomatic bladder stones of size upto 4 cm who underwent transurethral holmium laser cystolithotripsy under local anaesthesia during the study period. Laser energy was delivered through a 9.5F semi rigid ureteroscope using 365 μm or 550 μm end-firing fibre. Pain during the procedure was assessed using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Descriptive statistics was used for analysis of the results.
Results: During the study period, 86 patients (84 men, 2 women) underwent transurethral Holmium laser cystolithotripsy under local anaesthesia. Complete fragmentation of the stones was achieved in all patients. The mean stone size was 15.04 mm and the mean operating time was 23.81 minutes. The procedure was well tolerated by the patients and the mean pain score was 3.26. It was associated with minor complications only. There was no major complication or mortality during the study.
Conclusion: Transurethral holmium laser cystolithotripsy under local anaesthesia is a safe procedure. It is well tolerated by adult patients and it can be used for the treatment of bladder stones of size upto 4 cm.