Effects of Different Types of Phototherapy Units on Neonatal Jaundice: A Cross-sectional Study
Dr. Karthikeyan Panneerselvam,
Professor, Department of Paediatrics, SRM Medical College Hospital and Research Centre, Kattankulathur, Tamil Nadu, India.
Introduction: Phototherapy is the mainstay of treatment of neonates who develop significant jaundice. Light-emitting diode and compact florescent lamp phototherapy units are the newer devices in the management of neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia. The advantage of light-emitting diode phototherapy includes portability, energy efficiency, less heat production, and durability. Blue and white phototherapy devices are more economical but generate more heat leading to hyperthermia and dehydration more often.
Aim: To determine the efficacy and side effects of three modes of phototherapy units viz conventional blue and white light phototherapy, Compact Fluorescent Lamp (CFL) phototherapy, and Light-emitting Diode (LED) phototherapy on neonates having jaundice.
Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Department of Paediatrics at SRM Medical college Hospital and Research Centre (tertiary care teaching hospital), Kattankulathur, Tamil Nadu, India, from February 2021 to January 2022. A total of 150 neonates with hyperbilirubinaemia in the phototherapy range, American Academy of Paediatrics (AAP), were included in this study. Study subjects were divided into three groups of 50 neonates each to receive phototherapy using one of the three phototherapy devices, i.e., Blue and white light, CFL, LED phototherapy groups. Data of serum bilirubin levels were recorded at the beginning and end of phototherapy. The number of babies who required exchange transfusion and other clinical side effects among the study groups was recorded. Descriptive statistics were reported as Mean±SD for continuous variables, frequencies (percentage) for categorical variables. The One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) test was used to determine the statistically significant differences between the means of three independent groups.
Results: All the three type of phototherapy units generated statistically non significant mean flux (p-value=0.754). Mean difference (from the baseline bilirubin) at end of phototherapy for blue and white light group was 5.77±1.72 mg%, for CFL group was 5.48±1.32 mg%, and for LED group was 6.34±1.48 mg%. The difference was statistically significant in all three groups (p-value=<0.001). The reduction in serum bilirubin at the end of phototherapy was lesser in CFL group compared to blue and white light group and LED group.
Conclusion: Light-emitting diode and blue and white light phototherapy units are more effective than compact fluorescent lamp phototherapy in treating neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia.