Histopathological Changes in Kidneys of Developing Chick Embryo on Exposure to Artesunate
Dr. Rajesh Kumar,
Saraswathi Institute of Medical Sciences, Pilakhua,
Hapur, Uttar Pradesh-245304 India.
Introduction: Chick embryo is one of the most commonly used animals to study the adverse effects of various drugs for research purpose. In India, Malaria imposes incredible socio-economic burden on humankind. India reports approximately two million cases of malaria yearly, with large number of deaths. Surveys have demonstrated that the rates of treatment failure are higher than 50% due to Chloroquine resistance and poor efficacy of Sulphadoxine Pyrimethamine. Artesunate is a concentrate of Artemisia plant found in China, also called as Qinghaosu. It is a subordinate of a group of drugs artemisinin that have the most rapid action of all current drugs against Chloroquine resistant Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria.
Aim: To understand the adverse effects of Artesunate on kidney of developing chick embryo.
Materials and Methods: The present study was an experimental study which comprised of steps like selection and sampling of eggs in groups (control and experimental), selection and preparation of drug (dose titration), drug administration, incubation of eggs, manual hatching to obtain chick embryo, isolation of kidney, sectioning of kidney and staining for slide preparation, microscopical analysis of the slides. In this study, the fertilised eggs used were of White Leghorn chicken and were procured from King and King poultry farm Hapur, Uttar Pradesh, India. Hundred fertilised chicken eggs were divided into five experimental groups denoted by A, B, C, D, and E and five control groups denoted by a, b, c, d and e one for each experimental group respectively. Each experimental and control group had 10 eggs. Experimental groups A, B, C, D and E were exposed to artesunate with dose of 0.0004 mg, 0.0005 mg, 0.0006 mg, 0.0007 mg and 0.0008 mg respectively and control group a, b, c, d and e were treated with same concentration of normal saline as artesunate. The eggs were broken by scalpel on 18th day of incubation and chick embryos were obtained. The kidneys were removed sectioned, stained and studied using light and compound microscope.
Results: Histopathological changes like tubular degeneration, vacuolation in the cytoplasm of epithelium lining of Proximal Convoluted Tubules (PCT) and Distal Convoluted Tubules (DCT), congestion in Glomeruli, haemorrhage in urinary space and mild lymphocytic infiltration were observed.
Conclusion: Exposure to artesunate increases the risk of nephrotoxicity with increase of embryonic age.