Clinical Profile and Treatment Response in Tuberculous Meningitis- A Comparison between HIV Positive and HIV Negative Patients
Dhirendra Shivprasad Yadav,
'A' Wing, Flat No-401, 4th Floor, Shree Ganesh Apartment, Plot No: 265, Sector: 23, Juinagar, Navi Mumbai-400705, Maharashtra, India.
Introduction: Tuberculous Meningitis (TBM) is a common infection in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and it shows significant differences in clinical profile, treatment response, and outcome compared to patients without HIV infection.
Aim: To describe the clinical presentation, laboratory parameters, and radiological findings of TBM patients with and without HIV co-infection and to observe differences between them in treatment response, complications, and mortality.
Materials and Methods: This was a prospective observational study, conducted on 80 TBM patients with (n=40) and without (n=40) HIV co-infection. Demographic, clinical, laboratory data, and various imaging findings were noted at the start of the study and at three and six months follow-up, for any changes from baseline to know the treatment response. Appropriate statistical tests were applied, and p-value less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant.
Results: Mean age of HIV patients was 36.75 years and that of the non HIV patients was 29.35 years (p<0.05). Altered sensorium (90% in HIV and 72.5% in non HIV), seizures (50% in HIV and 20% in non HIV) were common in HIV patients, and weight loss (95% in non HIV and 87.5% in HIV) was common in non HIV patients. Common signs noted were nuchal rigidity (90% in HIV and 87.5% in the non HIV group), focal neurological deficit (50% in HIV and 22.5% in non HIV), and cranial nerve palsy (37.5% in HIV and 12.5% in non HIV). Anaemia was seen in 56.3% (87.5% in HIV and 25% in non HIV) and raised Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) was seen in 56.3% (25% in HIV and 87.5% in non HIV) patients. Tuberculoma was the most common (32.5%) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) brain finding. Adverse drugs reactions due to ATT (other causes ruled out) were seen in 22.5% of HIV patients (none in non HIV), and Antiretroviral Therapy (ART)-induced Adverse Drugs Effects (ADE) was noted in 10% of patients. Patient survival was better among non HIV (65%) compared to HIV (55%) patients. Multidrug-resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB) was more prevalent in HIV (7.5%) than non HIV (2.5%) cases.
Conclusion: TBM involves a younger population, has a worse prognosis in HIV co-infection patients with more adverse reactions to treatment.