Gastrointestinal Complications and its Association with Common Risk Factors of Cerebrovascular Accident: A Retrospective Observational Study from Central India
Dr. Ajay Kumar Nandmer,
Flat no: F-401, Vedmata Society, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India.
Introduction: Patients with Cerebrovascular Accidents (CVA) may present with Gastrointestinal (GI) complications, negatively affecting the prognosis. However, the whole spectrum of GI complications in CVA patients is unknown.
Aim: To assess GI complications in CVA patients and their association with risk factors of CVA.
Materials and Methods: The retrospective, facitlity-based, observational study was conducted in Department of Medicine at Gandhi Medical College and associated Hamidia Hospital, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India, from March 2019 to August 2021. Total 100 patients with CVA (age >13 years) were studied based on their medical records and laboratory examinations. Details on socio-demographic variables and clinical history were obtained. Detailed general and systemic examination and vitals were documented. Complete blood picture, liver function test, renal function test, lipid profile and magnetic resonance imaging scan was also performed. A Chi-square t- test was applied to assess the association of GI complications with various variables. A p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results: Most CVA patients were males (51%). Mean age of study population was 71.49±11.46 years. A history of hypertension and diabetes mellitus was observed in 60% and 54% of cases. Constipation (43%) was the most common GI complication, followed by dysphagia (25%). No significant association of GI complications with age (p-value=0.261), gender (p-value=0.217), hypertension (p-value=0.540) and diabetes mellitus (p-value=0.257) was observed in CVA patients. However, raised serum bilirubin, serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase in 47%, 23%, and 37% cases with CVA was observed.
Conclusion: Gastrointestinal complications are commonly observed in stroke patients irrespective of stroke but are more common in patients with ischemic stroke. Constipation and dysphagia were the most common. Fecal incontinence, abdominal pain, hiccups, and melena may also be seen in patients with CVA.