Socio-demographic and Clinical Profile of Patients with Substance Use Disorder at a Tertiary Care Centre in Vindhya Region: A Hospital-based Study
Dr. Amrendra Kumar Singh,
Senior Resident, Department of Psychiatry, Shyam Shah Medical College, Rewa, Madhya Pradesh, India.
Introduction: The rampant increase in substance use in India makes it a serious public health hazard, in consonance with the western trend. The upsurge of substance use is getting so alarming that the preventive strategies have become a matter of national priority. The youth constitute the most vulnerable section in the society. Similar to the unprecedented rise of substance use all over India, Madhya Pradesh did not remain untouched by this erosion. In the recent past, the pattern of substance use in this region has worsened leading to an increase in behavioural disturbances due to substance use, poor family dynamics, illegal issues and restrained interpersonal relationships.
Aim: To study the clinical and socio-demographic profile of various substance users in the Vindhya region.
Materials and Methods: The present hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Psychiatry, Shyam Shah Medical College, Rewa, Madhya Pradesh, India, from January 2019 to May 2019. Patients of all ages, both genders, diagnosed under substance use disorders as per Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5) criteria were included in the study. A detailed assessment including socio-demographic and clinical history, physical examination and other relevant investigations were done. Statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), version 21.0.
Results: After the screening of 432 patients, 339 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Total 92 (27.29%) patients were multiple substance users, followed by opioids 82 (24.33%), and benzodiazepines 66 (19.58%). Alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis users were 42 (12.46%), 29 (8.6%), and 28 (8.3%) respectively. Majority of the study participants 160 (47.2%) were in the younger age group (21-30 years). Most of them were males 303 (89.4%), single 230 (67.8%), from urban areas 204 (60.2%), and belonging to the lower-middle socioeconomic class 108 (32%). The bulk participants were students 95 (28%), and well-educated (undergraduate and above). The chief reason for seeking the treatment was withdrawal symptoms. The majority of the subjects with substance use had onset within the age range of 10-20 years (149, 44%). Peer group influence was the most common factor responsible for the initiation of substance use overall (145, 42.7%). Strong craving (77, 22.7%) was the most important continuation/maintenance factor.
Conclusion: The younger age groups with a family history were at a high risk of developing substance use disorders. Easy accessibility of substances along with peer motivation for substance-taking behavior has made increased the number of adolescent and young substance users.