A Case-control Study of Sexual Dysfunction and Serum Prolactin Levels in Patients with Psychotic Disorders
Dr. Vijay Niranjan,
E-2 Quarter, Mental Hospital Campus, Banganga, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India.
Introduction: Sexual functioning has remained widely neglected aspect of patient care for those suffering from severe mental disorders and has received little attention. Yet, it has been construed as one of the major factors contributing to non-adherence with antipsychotic medications.
Aim: To study sexual dysfunction in patients with psychotic disorders and its clinical association with serum prolactin levels.
Materials and Methods: This case-control study was conducted in the Department of Psychiatry at MGM Medical College and associated Mental Hospital, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India, from 13th February 2020 to 21st January 2021. The study sample consisted of 200 subjects including 100 cases and 100 controls. The case group included patients with a diagnosis of psychotic disorders currently in remission for atleast one month. Remission of the patients was ensured by Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) with a score of <4 on all items and <28 total score. Assessment of sexual dysfunction was done using Arizona Sexual Experience Scale (ASEX). The control group included healthy subjects aged between 18-65 years, either sex having active sexual partners with a score of <3 on all the items of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Collection of blood sample was done and serum was analysed for prolactin levels using the Chemiluminescent Microparticle Immunoassay (CMIA) method. Statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 28.0 for windows.
Results: The mean age of the case group was 39.9±7.457 years while that of the control group was 35.60±9.37 years. The number of male patients (71% and 73%) was higher than females (29% and 27%) in the control group and case group respectively. The difference between the two were statistically significant. The total number of cases who experienced sexual dysfunction came out to be 59 out of 100. Total 55.93% of those having sexual dysfunction were suffering from difficulty in sexual arousal, followed by difficulty with penile erection/vaginal lubrication (49.15%), orgasmic dysfunction (34.48%), and reduced sexual drive (23.72%). Among the cases, the mean serum prolactin level (14.14±10.60 ng/mL) was seen to be significantly higher (p-value <0.001) than the control group (9.46±6.05 ng/mL). Maximum serum prolactin level (29.00±9.95 ng/mL) was seen to be associated with usage of a combination of both 1st and 2nd generation antipsychotics.
Conclusion: There was a significant prevalence of sexual dysfunction in psychotic patients and is associated significantly with elevated serum prolactin levels.