A Cross-sectional Observational Study on Distal Femoral Morphometry in West-central Maharashtra, India
Dr. Anil Kumar Dwivedi,
Associate Professor, Department of Anatomy, Veer Chandra Singh Garhwali
Government Institute of Medical Science and Research, Srinagar, Garhwal-246174, Uttarakhand, India.
Introduction: Femur or thigh bone is the longest bone of the human skeleton. The lower end of the femur articulates with the tibia to form the knee joint. Femur shows morphometric variations in relation to geography, race, ethnic group, and gender.
Aim: To measure various dimensions of the lower end of the femur in West-central Maharashtra, India.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in the Department of Anatomy, Armed Forces Medical College, Pune, Maharashtra, India from May 2010 to May 2013 on 280 adult dried femora (136 Right and 144 Left). The lower ends of the femora were evaluated for bicondylar width (BCW), anteroposterior diameter of both medial and lateral condyles, the transverse diameter of both medial and lateral condyles, intercondylar notch width, notch width index, and femoral aspect ratio. All the measurements of the right and left femur were obtained by Vernier caliper and recorded separately. The data was analysed statistically using student’s t-test. The p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results: The mean bicondylar width for the right and left-side were 72.83±5.09 mm and 71.83±5.65 mm, respectively. Medial condyle anteroposterior diameter (MCAPD) for right and left femur were 56.99±3.79 mm and 55.20±4.35 mm. Lateral condyle anteroposterior diameter (LCAPD) for right and left femur were 57.48±4.96 mm and 56.37±4.55 mm. Medial condyle transverse diameter (MCTD) for right and left-side were 23.68±2.68 mm and 23.63±2.40 mm. Lateral condyle transverse diameter (LCTD) for right and left-side were 25.26±2.56 mm and 25.24±2.62 mm. Intercondylar notch width (ICNW) for right and left-side were 21.06±2.45 mm and 21.00±2.62 mm. Notch width index for right and left femur were 0.29±0.03 and 0.29±0.03. The Femoral Aspect Ratio (FAR) for right and left-side was 1.27±0.07 and 1.28±0.05, respectively. In this study, there were no statistically significant differences between values of right and left-sides except, medial condyle anteroposterior diameter showed a statistically significant difference between the two sides (p=0.0002).
Conclusion: The morphometric data collected from the lower end of the femur indicated ethnic variations with a different populations in India and abroad. Values obtained in the present study were less than the dimensions of commonly available femoral implants because the design of most of these implants is based on dimensions of foreign populations, indicating size mismatch. These data will aid in the decision-making and implant design, suitable for local population.