Role of Mitochondrial Dynamics in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Dysfunction
Dr. Jwalant Eknath Waghmare,
Professor and Head, Department of Anatomy, Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram, Wardha, Maharashtra, India.
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is influenced by the action of both hereditary and environmental factors. These factors are comprehended in the disease interaction with β cells and insulin sensitivity to the receptors.The main cause of T2DM development is ageing, obesity, and oxidative stress. The dysfunction of the β cells of the pancreas leads to insulin insensitivity in the liver, muscle and fat metabolism. These occur due to the result of oxidative stress. Lipid peroxidation is a key initiating factor in the development of oxidative stress, which results in T2DM and its related micro-and macro-vascular problems. These are initially compensated for the generation of excess insulin synthesis, thus ensuring normal glucose tolerance. When these compensatory processes are disrupted, the majority of persons develop T2DM. Although the gene is the primary cause of T2DM, the environment also plays an important role in the disease's progression. Particularly, a sedentary lifestyle characterised by excessive food consumption and physical inactivity is a known risk factor for obesity and type 2 diabetes. This review has briefly discussed the significance of numerous causal factors, and genomic and biochemical pathways which are responsible for increasing the production of oxidative stress, a crucial component for the etiology and development of T2DM. The conclusion drawn was that the analysis of oxidative stress markers may be one of the potential methods for the diagnosis and prognosis of T2DM. Furthermore, this review will be helpful to establish the broaden conceptual framework for future studies on oxidative stress with relation to etiology of type 2 diabetes and therapeutic development.