Effectiveness of Active Learning Methods as a Supplementary Measure to Routine Didactic Amphibian Experiments in Physiology
Dr. Dipali Krishnarao Chatur,
Assistant Professor, Department of Physiology, 3rd Floor, Medical College Building, Gate No. 5, GE Road AIIMS, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India.
Introduction: Animal experiments are banned but it is still a part of first year MBBS curriculum and is well assessed in the examination. Most of medical teachers use the traditional chalk and board method for teaching these experiments where students are passive learners and face difficulty in knowledge gain and recall. In this context, Active Learning Methods (ALM) can be a helpful student-centric approach.
Aim: To assess the effect of ALM in addition to the traditional chalk and board method on the performance of students and also to assess their perception regarding ALM.
Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Department of Physiology, Pravara Institute of Medical Sciences (DU), Rural Medical College, Loni (BK) Maharashtra state on first year medical students of batch 2013-14 from August 2013 to December 2013. Total of 64 students were included and divided into two batches A and B with 32 students each. Initially, for four Skeletal Muscle (SKM) sessions, ALM was introduced to batch B as revision in the second hour of practical class, following teaching by chalk and board method in the first hour, while batch A had routine tutorial. Thereafter, crossover of batches was done. Student’s performance was assessed by Multiple Choice Questionnaire (MCQ) tests at the end of each section of experiments and also the perception for ALM was recorded by Likert’s scale. Unpaired t-test was used to compare between groups.
Results: In batch A, there were 14 females and 18 males with mean age 18.06±0.56 years and in batch B, 10 females and 22 males with mean age 18.06±0.24 years. Batch B students with implementation of ALM scored significantly higher (7.62±1.26) compared to batch A (6.41±1.99) without ALM, for SKM section, with p-value of 0.004. After crossover of batches, score of batch A with ALM (8.31±1.17) was significantly higher compared to batch B (5.84±1.56) without ALM with p-value of <0.001 for cardiac muscle experiments. Total of 96.87% of the students strongly agreed that ALM created a safe learning environment as well as they learned with fun.
Conclusion: ALM supplementing with the traditional chalk and board method in small groups should be incorporated to improve understanding of amphibian experimental physiology.