Effect of ACEi and ARBs vs Non ACEi/ARBs in Hypertension with Respect to Renal Outcomes in COVID-19 Infection: A Retrospective Cohort Study
Dr. HA Krishnamurthy,
EWS 44, 1 Stage, 2 Cross, Kuvempu Nagara, Mysuru-570023, Karnataka, India.
Introduction: The Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) is one of the most common complications following Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) infection. The presence of high density of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors in type 2 alveolar epithelial cells, vascular endothelium and proximal convoluted tubules explains the involvement of systemic organs in COVID-19 infection. Systemic hypertension is one of the most common co-morbidities associated with COVID-19 infection with high mortality, especially in patients of severe disease with AKI. The antihypertensives, which work by Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone System (RAAS) inhibition like ACE inhibitors (ACEi) and Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARBs) can upregulate the enzyme ACE2, so, the incidence and risk of AKI in hypertensive patients, who have COVID-19 infection is common.
Aim: To determine the risk of developing AKI and mortality in hypertensive patients, with COVID-19 infection, on ACEi or ARBs as compared to non ACEi and non ARBs.
Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study conducted on 116 admitted hypertensive patients, who were positive for COVID-19 infection from the month of April 2021 to September 2021. The study patients were divided into two groups- group A and group B. The group A was on ACEi or ARBs and group B was on non ACEi/ARBs. The patients baseline history, clinical examination and the blood investigations like Renal Function Test (RFT), Liver Function Test (LFT), Echocardiography (ECG), Chest X-ray, 2 Dimensional-ECHO (2D-ECHO), Arterial Blood Gases (ABG) were done for all the patients. The normal Blood Pressure (BP) was less than 140/90 mmHg. The normal creatinine was 0.6 to 1.5 mg/dL and normal urea was 19 to 45 mg/dL. The RFT was repeated on every day of hospital stay duration. The patients were followed-up for one month from day of starting the study. The parameters were recorded, assessed on day 7th and day 30th, of the study. All parameters were compared between the final outcome of the patients by 30th day of study and the class of antihypertensives used to control hypertension. The Pearson’s Chi-square test, Fisher’s-Exact and one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were used for testing the significance of relationship and outcome between group A and group B study patients.
Results: The mean duration of hypertension in both the groups was 7.6 years. In group A 53 (45.7%) were on ACEi and ARBs, in group B, 63 (54.3%) were on non ACEi/ARBs. In the group A, the serum creatinine of more than >1.5 mg/dL at 7th day of study was found in 28 (52.8%) patients and on 30th day, it was found in 8 (15.09%) patients (p-value=0.065). Again in the group A, blood urea of more than 45 mg/dL on 7th day of study was found in 30 (56.6%) patients and on 30th day it was found in 9 (16.98%) patients (p-value=0.064). In group B, the serum creatinine >1.5 mg/dL on day 7th of study was found in 36 (57.14%) patients and on day 30th, it was in 24 (38.09%) patients (p-value=0.061). Again in group B, the blood urea of >45 mg/dL on day 7th was found in 35 (55.55%) patients and on day 30th it was found in 16 (25.39%) patients (p-value=0.074). Of the patients on group A (ACEi and ARBs) 28 (52.83%) were on supplemental oxygen, 12 (22.6%) were on Non Invasive Ventilation (NIV), one was intubated and 12 (22.6%) did not require oxygen (p-value=0.727). Of the patients on group B (non ACEi/ARBs) 33 (52.4%) were on supplemental oxygen, 12 (19.04%) were on NIV, 5 (7.93%) were intubated and 13 (20.63%) did not require oxygen. In the patients of group A, 35 (66.03%) were recovered and 18 (33.96%) died, in the group B 40 (63.49%) cases were recovered, while 23 (36.50%) died (p-value=0.781).
Conclusion: There was no significant and demonstrable association between specific groups of antihypertensives with renal outcomes and mortality in hypertensive patients with COVID-19 infection. By above observations, the present study concluded that, there is no specific role of ACE2 receptors in renal outcome and mortality in hypertension with COVID-19 infection.