Efficacy of 70% Glycolic Acid Peel versus 30% Salicylic Acid Peel in the Treatment of Mild to Moderate Acne Vulgaris: A Retrospective Study
Dr. K Gopalakrishnan,
Department of Dermatology Venereology and Leprosy (DVL), KMCHIHSR, 99, Avinashi Road, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.
Introduction: Chemical peels have become a useful modality in the management of acne in addition to topical and systemic medications. Studies done to evaluate the effectiveness of peels have compared only lower concentration of Glycolic Acid (GA) (35%) and Salicylic Acid (SA) peels. Higher concentrations of glycolic acid i.e., (70%) are reported to be safe and more effective than lower concentrations. Despite reported advantages of higher concentration of glycolic acid peel, no published data is available regarding its efficacy, safety and tolerability in comparison with other peels.
Aim: To compare the effectiveness of 70% GA peel with 30% SA peel in the management of mild to moderate acne.
Materials and Methods: The present study was a cross-sectional retrospective study conducted from December 2021 to April 2022 in which, 60 participants were enrolled. They were diagnosed with mild to moderate acne, based on the Indian Acne Alliance (IAA) grading system and all of them underwent chemical peel treatment. Among them 30 had received 70% GA peel (group 1) and 30 had received 30% SA peel (group 2). The number of sittings and the individual lesional count at baseline and at each sitting were recorded. Acne lesional count (sum of comedones, papules, pustules, and nodules) was recorded at baseline, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks. Categorical variables were presented as frequency and percentages. Continuous variables were presented as Mean±Standard deviation.
Results: There was a significantly greater decrease in mean acne lesional count in group 2 from the baseline of 25.73 to 13.83 at the end of 2nd weekin comparison to group 1 wherein the values reduced from 26.30 to 17.73 (p-value of 0.003). At the end of eight weeks, the mean acne lesional count of both groups (group 1- 2.17 and group 2-1.50, p-value of 0.097) were comparable.
Conclusion: Higher concentration of GA (70%) has comparable effectiveness to 30% SA peel in management of mild to moderate acne. SA peel has an advantage of earlier decrease in lesional count.