Comparison of Laser-assisted and Conventional Flap Surgery with Hydroxyapatite Crystals in the Treatment of Intrabony Defects under Magnification- A Randomised Clinical Trial
Dr. Mohan Kumar Pasupuleti,
Associate Professor, Department of Periodontics and Implantology, Vishnu Dental College, Vishnupur, Bhimavaram-534202, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Introduction: Achieving regeneration of the lost periodontal structures after surgical approach plays a major role. This healing can be interrupted due to the presence of invasive bacteria which is present in the periodontal tissues.
Aim: To compare laser-assisted and conventional flap surgery using microsurgical instruments and under surgical operating microscope with hydroxyapatite graft in the treatment of intrabony defects.
Materials and Methods: This prospective randomised split-mouth clinical study was conducted in Department of Periodontology at Vishnu Dental College, Bhimavaram, Andhra Pradesh, India, from June 2020 to December 2021.
A total of 24 bilateral intrabony defects were selected for the study. Control sites (n=12) received the graft after conventional open flap debridement. In the test group (n=12), graft placement was done followed by laser irradiation with diode laser (980 nm, power: 3.0 W; frequency 2.5 KHz) for 30 seconds. The entire flap surgery procedure was performed under Surgical Operating Microscope (SOM). Clinical parameters such as plaque index, gingival index, probing depth, relative attachment level, were assessed at 3 months and 6 months. Healing index was assessed after 7 days of surgery. Radiographic parameters were assessed at baseline and 6 months using Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT). Descriptive statistics, Independent samples t-test, repeated measures analysis of variance and Paired t-tests were used in data analysis. Data were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0 software.
Results: Intragroup comparison showed statistical significance in all clinical and radiographical parameters (p-value<0.001). Intergroup comparison between the test and control group did not show any statistical significance in terms of plaque index, gingival index, relative Clinical attachment level, probing depth (p-value≥0.05). Intragroup comparison of the depth of defect was statistically significant in both test (p-value=0.011) and control groups (p-values=0.002). Intergroup comparison did not show any statistical significance in linear bone fill (p-value=0.1). Intergroup comparison did not show any statistical significance in defect angle (p-value=0.773). No statistical significance was obtained in percentage fill (p-value=0.074). Intergroup comparison did not show any statistical significance in the clinical and radiographical parameters.
Conclusion: The additional laser irradiation at the test site did not exhibit any significant benefits in the bone regeneration. All the outcomes were similar in test and control group.