Histomorphometric Analysis of Chick Embryo Kidneys on Exposure to 1800 MHz and 2100 MHz Radiofrequency Radiation Emitted from Cell Phone
Mary Hydrina Dsilva,
Associate Professor, Department of Anatomy, Zoram Medical College, Falkawn, Aizawl, Mizoram-796005, India.
Introduction: With its sophisticated and multifunctional features, the cell phone has become an integral part of human life. Scientific reports are still inconclusive, regarding the possible ill effects of Radiofrequency Radiation (RFR) emitted from cell phones on biological tissues.
Aim: To evaluate the possible tissue damage in developing kidneys of chick embryos, following exposure to 1800 MHz and 2100 MHz radiofrequency radiation emitted from 2G and 3G cell phones.
Materials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted in Department of Anatomy at Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute, Puducherry, India, from August 2011 to June 2015. Fertilised chick embryos (144±20 eggs) were divided into three groups with a sample size of 48 eggs per group. Group A was exposed to 2G radiation (1800 MHz), group B was exposed to 3G radiation (2100 MHz) and group C was a sham exposed control group. The embryos were sacrificed from the 5th-12th day, and processed for routine histological procedures, to check structural and morphometric changes in the kidney. The standard epithelial height and nuclear diameter of both proximal convoluted tubule and distal convoluted tubule, karyorrhexis changes and diameter of urinary space were analysed using an ocular micrometer and square reticle. The results were statistically analysed using one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA).
Results: The results showed cytoplasmic changes (vacuolations) and nuclear changes (nucleomegaly, karyorrhexis) in proximal convoluted tubule and distal convoluted tubule, vascular changes (haemorrhage and infiltrations) in the interstitium and increased urinary space in the glomerulus of chick embryo kidneys.
Conclusion: Based on the study findings, it was concluded that RFR exposure from cell phones causes histopathological changes in the developing kidneys of chick embryos.