Effect of Tinospora cordifolia on Oxidative Stress Level due to Drug Induced Nephrotoxicity: An Experimental Study
Dr. Senthil Kumar Sampath Kumar,
Professor, Department of Anatomy, Sri Ramachandra Medical College, Sri Ramachandra Institute of Higher Education and Research (DU), Porur, Chennai-600116, Tamil Nadu, India.
Introduction: Various herbs are known to confer nephroprotectivity against renal damage of different origins. Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers is known to treat kidney disorders. Yet, a lacuna of studying the protective effect of the herb on drug induced nephrotoxicity at different time periods exists.
Aim: To determine the protective effect of T. cordifolia (Willd.) Miers on drug induced nephrotoxic biochemical changes upon post-treatment with the herb.
Materials and Methods: An experimental study was carried out at the Centre for Toxicology and Developmental Research, Sri Ramachandra Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India, from September 2020 to October 2020. Gentamicin induced drug nephrotoxicity model was employed for the study. The ethanolic extract of T. cordifolia was prepared. Total 51 adult male Wistar rats were housed under standard animal laboratory conditions for 30 days and were assigned to four groups: Control group (Olive oil, per os), Nephrotoxicity group (Gentamicin), Toxicity cessation group (Gentamicin-Olive oil) and Post-treatment group (Gentamicin T. cordifolia ethanolic extract). To induce nephrotoxicity, gentamicin (100 mg/kg) was administered through the Intraperitoneal (IP) route for 8 days. The ethanolic extract of the stem of T. cordifolia (Willd.) Miers (400 mg/kg) was administered orally for one, two and three weeks following nephrotoxicity induction. Levels of activity of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT), Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx), Reduced Glutathione (GSH) content and Lipid peroxidation in the kidney were measured. Statistical analysis was performed using One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Post-hoc tests.
Results: The reduction in SOD (6.33±1.19 unit/ mg/mt), CAT (57.56±25.89 mcm/mt/mg ptn), GPx (5.79±1.87 nm/mt/mg ptn) activity, and GSH (4.98±0.31mcm/g tissue) levels and increase in the lipid peroxidation (196.28±100.05 nm/g tissue) in the kidney due to gentamicin nephrotoxicity was reversed upon post-treatment with T. cordifolia (Willd.) Miers extract for 1 week (7.06±0.25 unit/mg/mt, 119.69±22.79 mcm/mt/ mg ptn, 7.08±1.73 nm/mt/mg ptn, 6.19±0.99 mcm/g tissue and 93.10±9.11 nm/g tissue), 2 weeks (7.03±0.43 unit/ mg/ mt, 181.79±39.00 mcm/mt/mg ptn, 5.07±0.81 nm/mt/mg ptn, 7.58±0.73 mcm/g tissue and 188.31±54.89 nm/g tissue) and 3 weeks (7.81±0.47 unit/mg/mt, 165.83±37.48 mcm/mt/ mg ptn, 3.92±1.87 nm/mt/mg ptn, 7.03±1.28 mcm/g tissue, 214.40±72.93 nm/g tissue).
Conclusion: Post-treatment with T. cordifolia (Willd.) Miers stem extract is protective in drug induced nephrotoxic condition, even upon 1 week of administration. Its therapeutic influence on the alterations in the oxidative stress markers and antioxidant levels produced due to gentamicin nephrotoxicity has been demonstrated.