Correlation of Serum Biochemical Parameters and Oxidative Stress in Malnourished Children: A Case-control Study
Dr. Ravi Kant Tiwari,
Professor and Head, Department of Pharmacology, United Institute of Medical Sciences Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Introduction: There are evidence regarding enhanced oxidative stress in the form of serum Malondialdehyde (MDA) and depleted activities of serum zinc and iron in malnourished children. The deficiency of trace elements predisposes the susceptibility to various infections. Changes in oxidant and antioxidant levels may be responsible for grading in Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM).
Aim: To correlate the levels of serum biochemical parameters such as proteins, zinc, iron with oxidative stress in the form of Malondialdehyde (MDA), in malnourished children of 1-5 years of age and also to compare the findings with age and gender matched well-nourished children.
Materials and Methods: This case-control study was conducted in the Biochemistry Department at Rohilkhand Medical College and Hospital, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India, from January to December 2014. A total of 202 children (aged 1-5 years) were included in the study. Out of these, 103 children were undernourished and 99 children were healthy control. Out of 103 undernourished children 46 were severe malnourished and 57 were moderate malnourished. Blood samples were analysed for the estimation of serum zinc, iron, MDA, albumin and total protein. T-test, one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Pearson correlation were used for statistical analysis and p-value <0.001 was considered significant.
Results: Mean weight of moderate malnourished (10.44±2 kg) and severe malnourished children (9.36±1.54 kg) were significantly low (p-value <0.001) when compared with control group (12.73±2.36 Kg). Compared to controls (0.71±0.18 nmol/mL) the serum MDA level were significantly high (p-value <0.001) in both moderate (1.84±0.38 nmol/mL) and severe (3.44±0.59 nmol/mL) malnourished children. Serum zinc and serum iron levels, serum total protein and albumin of malnourished cases were significantly low (p-value <0.001) as compared to the control subjects.
Conclusion: Compared to control, the malnourished children had significant high level of serum MDA while low levels of serum zinc, iron, albumin, globulin and total proteins. Early replacement of antioxidants, nutrients, proteins, zinc and iron supplement could be useful in the therapy of this disease.