Angiographic Profile of Type 2 Diabetic Patients with ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction: A Cross-sectional Study
Dr. G Krupashree,
Chetana Hostel, Karnataka Institute of Medical Sciences, Hubli, Karnataka, India.
Introduction: Coronary atherosclerosis is common in diabetics, and it is diffuse in form, with multivessel involvement. It demonstrates the involvement of multiple vessels rather than a single vessel.
Aim: To evaluate the angiographic profile of diabetic patients with ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI).
Materials and Methods: The present study was a cross-sectional study which enrolled 104 diabetic patients presenting with STEMI from December 2019 to March 2020. Seventy percent or more stenosis in any major coronary artery or its major branches (>2.5 mm) was considered as significant.
Results: Mean age of the patients was 55.61±11.32 years, with 75 subjects being males and 29 subjects being females. A total of 28 (26.92%) had Anterolateral Wall Myocardial Infarction (ALWMI), 4 (3.84%) had Anteroseptal Wall Myocardial Infarction (ASWMI) 39 (37.5%) had Anterior Wall Myocardial Infarction (AWMI), 1 (0.96%) had extensive AWMI, 2 (1.9%) had Inferolateral Wall Myocardial Infarction (ILWMI), while 30 (28.84%) patients had Inferior Wall Myocardial Infarction (IWMI). Furthermore, 51 (49.0%) were thrombolysed while 53 (50.96%) patients were non thrombolysed. Thirty eight (36.53%) had single vessel disease, 40 (38.46%) had double vessel disease, while 26 (25%) had triple vessel disease. Among these patients, Left Main Coronary Artery (LMCA) was involved in 3 (2.88%) of patients. Seventy three patients had a Glycated Haemoglobin (HbA1c) of greater than 8.5 and had multivessel involvement, whereas 31 had a HbA1c of less than 8.5. Major Adverse Cardiac Events (MACE) was observed during hospital stay in the form of death, recurrent myocardial infarction and cardiovascular stroke, which occurred in 20 (19.23%) patients of the total 104 diabetic patients.
Conclusion: In the present study, the severity and extent of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) and incidence of triple/multivessel disease was significantly high in diabetics. Diabetic patients with high HbA1c had more coronary vessel involvement. In this case, Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) is the mode of treatment.