Paradigm Shift in the Management of Pseudoaneurysm Following Nephrolithotomy-A Case Series
Dilip Kumar Pal,
Professor and Head, Department of Urology, IPGMER and SSKM Hospital, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
Renal artery pseudoaneurysm after nephrolithotomy or pyelolithotomy is rare, but is more often following Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL) or renal biopsy. It is a potentially life-threatening condition, with an incidence of 0.1 to 0.3% after nephrolithotomy or pyelolithotomy. Manifestation may vary, from asymptomatic to symptoms like local bloody discharge, haematuria, pain, high blood pressure, and rupture causing a life-threatening condition. A minimally invasive technique, selective or super-selective angioembolisation is the treatment of choice. This case series reports, five cases presented with either bloody wound discharge or intermittent haematuria in the Emergency Department, post nephrolithotomy. All patients were resuscitated in the Emergency Department with intravenous fluid and packed red blood cell transfusion. After resuscitation, three patients were diagnosed with renal artery pseudoaneurysm on Computed Tomography of Kidneys, Ureters and Bladder (CT KUB) and angiography, and two patients with digital subtraction angiography during the intervention. All were treated with super-selective renal artery angioembolisation, with endovascular coiling of different sizes. All patients made an uneventful recovery, and on followup no complication was evident. Now-a-days the popularity of angioembolisation for renal artery pseudoaneurysm has increased, which shows a paradigm shift from a traditional surgical intervention.