Prevalence of Anaemia in Women with Unsupervised Medical Abortion- An Observational Study
Dr. Neelam Patel,
Flat No. 2, MIG C Block, Peoples Campus,
Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India.
Introduction: According to American College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (ACOG) and other organisations such as the Society of Family Planning (SFP) and American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM), abortion services are considered as an essential component of comprehensive healthcare. Such services are considered as a time-sensitive issue, as delay in getting comprehensive abortion services may be associated with significant impact on physical health, wellbeing and mental health of the individual.
Aim: To determine proportion of women presenting to Gynaecologyy Outpatient Department (OPD) with unsupervised use of abortion pills and to estimate the percentage of anaemia among these women.
Materials and Methods: The present observational study was conducted on 148 women attending the Gynaecology OPD in People’s Hospital, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India and seeking treatment for complications due to unsupervised use of abortion pills during the study period of 18 months. A thorough history was obtained and a thorough physical examination was conducted. Haemoglobin estimation and Ultrasonography (USG) was done to determine complications. Data was compiled using Microsoft excel and results were expressed in terms of frequency and percentages and mean±SD.
Results: During the study period, a total of 360 cases with abortions were registered, of them 150 cases were unsupervised attributing to 41.7% cases. Out of 150 females with unsupervised abortions, 2 females did not give consent to participate and thus a total of 148 females were enrolled. Consumption of unsupervised abortion pills resulted in incomplete abortion in 77 (52%) cases, while complete abortion was reported in only 22 (14.9%) cases. Other complications observed in a few cases were septic shock, in 7 (4.7%) haemorrhagic shock in 4 (2.7%), secondary infertility in 3 (2%), inevitable abortion in 3 (2%), ruptured ectopic pregnancy in 3 (2%) and chronic ovarian ectopic in 1 (0.7%). Missed abortion was documented in 20 (13.5%) cases after complete examination and in 8 (5.4%) cases viable intrauterine pregnancy was diagnosed. Mild, moderate and severe anaemia was observed in 19 (12.8%), 98 (66.2%) and 12 (8.1%) females, respectively.
Conclusion: The unsupervised use of abortion pills not only increases maternal morbidity but also has been associated with life threatening complications such as septic shock, haemorrhagic shock, ruptured ectopic pregnancy etc. Anaemia is one of the most common complication of unsupervised pill consumption and preventing the latter may obviate the need for blood transfusion.