Effect of Mobile Phone Radiation on Parotid and Submandibular Salivary Glands- An Ultrasonographic Study
Dr. Priyanka Rana,
Postgraduate, Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Government Dental College and Hospital, Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Introduction: In this era of digitalism, mobile phones have become a cultural accessory. Frequent smartphone usage results in possible adverse effects from low radiofrequency radiation and thermal effect emitted by these devices. One of the major concerns is salivary glands as the mobile phones are held against the side of face in close proximity to these glands.
Aim: To assess the effect of cell phone radiation on the volume, systolic velocity, salivary flow rate of parotid and submandibular gland between the dominant and non dominant side of mobile phone users.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Government Dental College and Hospital, Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh, India, from September to November 2021. The sample size of 100 (50 males and 50 females). Inclusion criteria were based on the frequency of mobile phone usage of more than two hours per day. Mobile phone usage was determined based on patient’s answer to the questionnaire. Ultrasonography (USG) of both parotid and submandibular gland was done bilaterally to measure the volume of the glands and colour doppler of external carotid artery to measure systolic velocity. Modified Schirmer tear strips were used bilaterally to measure unstimulated salivary flow rate. The data was entered into MS excel and significance was calculated using independent sample t-test.
Results: In parotid gland, mean volume, mean systolic velocity and mean salivary flow rate were of higher value in the dominant side (14.22±2.17 mL; 15.14±3.74 cm/s; 0.37±0.26 mm/5 mins) compared to the non dominant side (13.76±2.14 mL; 14.53±3.39 cm/s; 0.24±0.2 mm/5 mins). In submandibular gland, mean volume, mean systolic velocity and mean salivary flow rate were of higher value in the dominant side (9.60±1.96 mL; 15.70±6.44 cm/s; 0.30±0.22 mm/5 mins) compared to the non dominant side (8.88±2.17 mL; 13.87±4.83 cm/s; 0.26±0.21 mm/5 mins).
Conclusion: The volume, systolic velocity of blood flow, the salivary flow rate, of the parotid gland and submandibular gland were significantly more on the dominant side than the non dominant side of mobile phone usage. The study emphasised that prolonged mobile phone usage causes biological changes in salivary glands and its flow rate.