Contemporary Consortium of Periodontal Diseases and Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Diseases- A Narrative Review
Dr. Roshan R Rughwani,
2F, Poonam Apartments, No-66 Old No.- 80, MG Road, Nungambakkam, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
Periodontal medicine unravels the relationship between periodontal health and disease with systemic health and disease. Periodontal disease serves as a niche for abundant quantity of microorganisms and their byproducts that disseminate into the blood stream. This systemic spread of endotoxins is directly related to the amount of periodontal destruction occurring at any given point of time and is responsible for bridging the link between inflammatory periodontal disease and various other systemic diseases. It is a well-known fact that periodontal diseases have been linked to various systemic diseases including osteoporosis, kidney diseases, adverse pregnancy outcomes, diabetes and even atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. Both periodontal diseases and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases share the same risk factors. Although both the diseases are multifactorial, the complex pathogenic mechanism orchestrating periodontal and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases share a considerate portion of the proinflammatory trait and several biochemical mediators play a role in the pathogenesis and inflammatory response in periodontitis caused by bacterial infections, linking chronic periodontitis to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. This review focuses on enlightening the plausible mechanisms that link periodontal and cardiovascular diseases and highlights the various other aspects of periodontal medicine that establishes a two-way relationship between periodontal diseases and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. Understanding the nature of this association would ultimately aid clinicians to carefully plan treatment for patients and emphasise the importance of maintaining optimal oral hygiene in atherosclerotic patients in a more comprehensive and acceptable manner.