Clinicopathological Parameters of Haemolytic Anaemia in COVID-19 Infection: A Series of Three Cases
Dr. Sarika Singh,
97B, Block C, Express View Apartments, Sector 105, Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients show various haematological abnormalities like cytopenia and coagulation disorders. Coronavirus can induce an inflammatory state, leading to extensive coagulation manifestations. Association between COVID-19, Autoimmune Haemolytic Anaemia (AIHA) and thrombotic state is still the subject of extensive research. In this study, three cases of haemolytic anaemia are discussed. First case was a 28-year-old female with a history of abruptio placentae who presented with complaints of generalised weakness and oliguria for five days. She was diagnosed as thrombotic microangiopathy based on peripheral smear finding of schistocytes and spherocytes and few polychromatophils and normal prothrombin time (International Normalised Ratio (INR)) with very high D-dimer levels on coagulation profile. Second case was of a 25-year-old female who presented with complaints of fatigue, rashes, dark urine, nausea and abdominal pain. She was diagnosed as a case of AIHA based on peripheral smear finding of Red Blood Cells (RBC) clumping and positive direct coomb test. Third case was of a two-month-old child who presented with respiratory distress and pallor. He was diagnosed as a case of haemolytic anaemia either due to direct effect of COVID-19 infection or Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and mycoplasma infection. Thus, COVID-19 infection can directly or indirectly lead to a wide spectrum of haemolytic manifestations and every patient with anaemia should be thoroughly investigated for early detection and treatment.