Clinical Characteristics and Risk Factors for Mortality in COVID-19 Patients: A Retrospective Cohort Study
Dr. Farzad Rahmani,
Associate Professor, Department of Medicine, Emergency and Trauma Care
Research Centre, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
Introduction: Coronavirus Disease in 2019 (COVID-19) is globally a major factor in the mortality of patients. Hence, there is an immediate requirement to recognise the mortality predictors in the COVID-19 patients.
Aim: To identify the clinical features and risk factors for the mortality of adult patients suffering from COVID-19 in Sirjan, Iran.
Materials and Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, all demographic, clinical, laboratory data of COVID-19 patients who were admitted to hospitals of Sirjan city was collected from July to October 2020 and data was analysed in November 2020. In this period, 269 patients with COVID-19 were admitted. The findings based on the considered parameters of patients in the hospital was recorded; Univariable and multivariable logistic regression methods were applied to find the risk factors due to in hospital death.
Results: Out of 269 patients, 39 patients (14.5%) died in the hospital and the rest were discharged. A total of 152 (56.5%) patients had co-morbidities. Hypertension (HTN) was the most common underlying disease 71 (26.4%), followed by Diabetes Mellitus (DM) 55 (20.4%), cardiac disease, and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder (COPD). The most common symptom was dyspnoea 207 (77%), followed by cough, 192 (71.4%) and fever, 127 (47.2%). The most common findings in the chest Computed Tomography (CT) scan of patients was ground-glass opacity with a frequency of 150 among 188 patients (79.8%) in patients with the abnormal CT scan. Multivariable regression indicated the increased odds of in-hospital death associated with COPD (OR=3.20, 95% CI 1.02-10.04; p=0.046), arterial saturation of oxygen ≤93% (OR=5.70, 95% CL 2.42-13.40; p<0.001), and leukocytosis (OR=7.26, 95% CL, 3.02-17.49, p<0.001).
Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, COPD, arterial saturation of oxygen (≤93%), and leukocytosis were risk factors for the hospital mortality of COVID-19. It might be proper for the initial determination of patients, who may need life saving interventions.