Association of Maternal Nutritional Status with COVID-19 Infection and its Effects on Pregnancy Outcomes- A Retrospective Study
Dr. Yugantika Tomar,
Postgraduate Resident, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Teerthankar Mahaveer Medical College, Moradabad, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Introduction: Need is felt to perform research for assessing the impact of maternal nutrition status on severity of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in pregnancy and effect of COVID-19 on maternal outcomes as it has not been established.
Aim: To evaluate association of maternal nutritional status and pregnancy outcomes with COVID-19 infection in pregnancy.
Materials And Methods: A retrospective study was conducted among 260 antenatal patients admitted in COVID-19 level 3 hospital (Teerthanker Mahaveer Medical College and Research Centre), Moradabad, Uttar Pradesh, India, from April 2020 to May 2021 with COVID-19 infection. Records were studied for the effect of maternal nutrition status along with COVID-19 and outcome of pregnancy in terms of anthropometric markers (body mass index), nutritional markers (haemoglobin, total serum proteins) and biochemical markers (oral glucose tolerance test, vitamin D). Pregnancy outcomes were assessed in terms of severity of symptoms, Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission, labor outcome and obstetric complications . Data were tabulated and examined using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0.
Results: Mean age of the patients enrolled was 21.4±5.6 years. A statistically significant association was seen with high body mass index (88.24%), hyperglycaemia (82.35%), hypoproteinaemia (6.01±0.47) and hypoalbuminaemia (0.93±0.24). Statistically significant association between adverse pregnancy outcomes in terms of bleeding per vaginum (11.76%) , preterm labour (54.92%), gestational diabetes mellitus (82.35%), hypertension (29.41%), Intrauterine Device (IUD) baby (35.29%) with increasing severity of COVID-19 infections.
Conclusion: COVID-19 adversely affects the maternal obstetric outcome. Maternal nutrition status factors associated with severity of COVID-19 were body mass index, deranged blood sugar levels and protein levels.