Oxidative Stress and Biochemical Parameters among Recovered COVID-19 Patients: A Case-control Study
Dr. Djamila Mezouar,
Associate Professor, Department of Natural and Life Sciences, University of Tiaret, Algeria.
E-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org
Introduction: The Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has spread rapidly, infecting more than 194 million and killing more than 4 million people worldwide. Algeria has not escaped this scourge; according to World Health Organization (WHO), 162,155 confirmed cases and 4,063 deaths have been recorded from 3rd January 2020 to 26th July 2021. Recent studies have indicated the critical role of an altered immune system, and oxidative stress in the pathological process contributing to several complications during COVID-19 disease.
Aim: To determine blood markers, oxidant/antioxidant status and biochemical parameters in patients highly recovered from COVID-19 and compare with those who have never contracted COVID-19; considered as controls.
Materials and Methods: The present case-control study was conducted in Tiaret, Algeria, between May 2021 and June 2021. Thirty healthy volunteers who had never contracted COVID-19 and 16 volunteers who recovered from COVID-19 in the last six months were included in the study. Blood samples were taken after 8 to 12 hours of fasting, the blood markers and biochemical parameters were evaluated. The participant with chronic diseases (diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, kidney disease) was excluded. Student’s t-test was performed for statistical comparison between the two groups. Statistical analysis was performed using Excel Microsoft 2010 software.
Results. The control group consisted of 46.7% male (n=14) and 53.3% females (n=16). While, the case group consisted of 62.5% males (n=10) and 37.5% females (n=6). The plasma levels of Low Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (LDL-C), p-value=0.004** and creatinine increased very significantly in the cases compared to the controls. While, total cholesterol, p-value=0.04* and Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase (GPT), p-value=0.03* increased significantly in the case group on comparision to the control group. On the other hand, erythrocyte Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, p-value=0.009** increased very significantly in the case group compared to controls. The erythrocyte activity catalase decreased highly significantly in the case group compared to the controls. But erythrocyte Reduced glutathione (GSH) decreased very significantly in group cases compared to controls.
Conclusion: The findings in the present study confirmed the persistence of metabolic alterations and oxidative stress in COVID-19 patients after recovery. Antioxidant supplementation is recommended to improve redox status and reduce oxidative stress after recovery.