Secondary Infections among COVID-19 Hospitalised Patients and their Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern: A Cross-sectional Study in a Tertiary Care Hospital
Dr. Gouri Sankar Sabat,
Lanjipo, Llychaka, Khala Street, Berhampur, Odisha, India.
Introduction: The novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) is a contagious virus that causes respiratory infection and has shown evidence of human-to-human transmission. In this infection the immunity of the patient is decreased; making them susceptible to various secondary infections. This leads to increased morbidity and mortality in these patients.
Aim: To estimate the profile of secondary infections in hospitalised Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) patients and analyse their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted for a period of five months from June to October 2021, which included COVID-19 positive patients with secondary infection admitted in the dedicated COVID hospital, Maharaja Krishna Chandra Gajapati Medical College and Hospital (MKCG MCH), Berhampur, Odisha, India. Clinical samples like blood, urine, sputum, tissue biopsy and Bronchoalveolar Lavage (BAL) were collected aseptically from patients with COVID-19 and were processed in microbiology laboratory as per standard operating procedures. All the necessary information like demographic features (age, gender), associated co-morbidities and oxygen saturation levels of COVID-19 positive patients at the time of admission were collected and entered in a Microsoft Excel sheet for further analysis. Results of continuous variables were described by mean and range while categorical variables were described by frequency. All the generated data was analysed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 16.0.
Results: A total of 438 patients suspected of COVID-19 were admitted during the study period, out of which 138 patients were positive for COVID-19 by Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). Out of 138 COVID-19 positive patients, 105 patients were willing to give samples and their samples were processed for bacterial and fungal culture and sensitivity. Total 18/105 (17.1%) samples were positive for bacterial and fungal growth. Blood Stream Infection (BSI) were seen in 14/18 (77.8%) and was predominantly associated with Staphylococcus aureus 5/14 (35.7%), followed by Enterococcus spp. 3/14 (21.4%). Out of total culture positive cases, 2/18 (11.1%) showed Urinary Tract Infection (UTI). Of the UTI cases Escherichia coli was isolated from 1/2 (50%) of cases. Out of total culture positive cases, 2/18 (11.1%) were identified having mucormycosis. All gram positive bacteria had shown maximum resistant to ampicillin and gram negative bacteria were resistant to ampicillin-sulbactam, levofloxacin, cotrimoxazole.
Conclusion: In COVID-19 positive patients with secondary infection, early diagnosis and prompt treatment will lead to improved patient care and better outcome.