Correlation of Lipid Profile with Inflammatory Markers among COVID-19 Positive Patients: A Retrospective Study
Dr. Asha Kumari,
House No. 504, C-2 Block, Shaheed Hasan Khan Mewati Government Medical College,
Nalhar, Nuh, Mewat-122107, Haryana, India.
Introduction: Lipids are fundamental biomolecules of the body. Infections like Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) with intricate immune response in some patient’s leads to acute complications by affecting metabolic pathways at multiple levels. Metabolism of cholesterol, triglyceride and High Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (HDL-C) is deranged by cytokines and multiple inflammatory mediators. The sex differences in lipid metabolism may contribute in susceptibility, severity and outcome COVID-19. Performing lipid profile in COVID-19 patient may help in assessing severity and prognosis of disease.
Aim: To assess the relationship between lipid profile and inflammatory markers in COVID-19 patients and also to evaluate the gender-wise differences in lipid parameters and their correlations with inflammatory markers.
Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was conducted in Department of Biochemistry at SHKM, GMC, Mewat, Haryana, India (tertiary care health centre) on COVID-19 positive patients attending Outpatient Department (OPD) and Inpatient Department (IPD), from October 2020 to December 2020. The data of 85 patients with COVID-19 positive, confirmed by Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) and who were prescribed for lipid profile along with C-Reactive Protein (CRP) and serum ferritin were included in the study. Serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-C, CRP and ferritin were measured in the subjects. Data was statistically analysed using Student’s t-test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient.
Results: Total 85 (46 males and 39 females) COVID-19 patients were included in the study. Mean age in male and female patients were 43.02±15.52 years and 42.02±15.25 years, respectively with a range of 5-82 years. Mean value of Serum triglycerides, HDL-C and total cholesterol was 204.94±141.27 mg/dL, 42.97±13.38 mg/dL and 187.058±45.75 mg/dL, respectively. Serum triglycerides were statistically significantly higher in males than females (p-value=0.0413). The HDL-C, however, was significantly higher in females than males (p-value=0.0006). In male patients, r-value between cholesterol and CRP was -0.3538, and p-value was 0.016. Ferritin had a significant negative correlation with HDL-C (r-value=-0.3578, p-value=0.00079). Weakly positive correlation was noted between triglyceride and ferritin (r-value=0.2285, p-value=0.035).
Conclusion: High levels of serum triglycerides, low total cholesterol, and low HDL-C correlates with inflammatory markers like CRP and ferritin in COVID-19 patients. Lipid profile may be used as a potential marker in all COVID-19 patients in assessing prognosis of disease.