Clinical Features and Predisposing Factors Influencing the Outcome of COVID-19 in First and Second Wave at Nanded, Maharashtra- A Retrospective Study
Dr. Raghavendra Swamy,
Junior Resident, Department of Microbiology, Dr. Shankarrao Chavan Government Medical College, Vishnupuri, Nanded-431606, Maharashtra, India.
Introduction: It is crucial to determine possible factors associated with exacerbation of the disease due to the alarming global spread, morbidity and mortality associated with Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19). It is important to determine the co-morbidities associated with this disease which will help in better treatment of patients in time and to make amendments to management policy.
Aim: To compare the clinical features and predisposing factors (socio-demographic factors and co-morbidities) influencing the outcome in COVID-19 infected patients admitted in a tertiary care centre in the first and second wave of COVID-19 pandemic.
Materials and Methods: The retrospective study was conducted at the Department of Microbiology, Dr. Shankarrao Chavan Government Medical College, Nanded, Maharashtra, India. The data was collected from the electronic resource which was maintained by the Institute Integrated Disease Surveillance Program (IDSP) health record reporting database for the duration of June 2020 to August 2021. This data included patient’s demographic details (age, sex, address, contact number), other details (history of close contacts, international travel) clinical history, different types of symptoms Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR patient category), co-morbidities, number of patients requiring Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission, type of sample, the outcome in terms of death and discharge, cause of death. The analysis was done for the complete data and then for two separate durations of the first and second wave which were compared later with Chi-square test (Bivariate analysis).
Results: A total of 8841 patients were involved and the majority of patients in the study were between the age group of 30-75 years, there was a predominance of males in first and second waves with 2226 (66.21%) and 3569 (65.13%) respectively. The paediatric patients had a mortality rate of 7 (100%) found in the second wave. Fever (39%) and dyspnea (22%) were found as the commonest presentation in both waves. Gastrointestinal manifestations were observed relatively more in the second wave. The serious patients on ventilator were found to have (>91%) the highest mortality. It appeared that the highest attributable risk to severity and mortality (8-10 times increased) was due to hypertension, diabetes and other co-morbidities. Pregnancy did not predisposed to be as a risk factor.
Conclusion: Prompt management and preventive care are needed for patients with co-morbidities to avoid the exacerbation of COVID-19 as well as drug cross interactions.