A Review on COVID-19 Pandemic
Ms. Ayushi Sharma,
RIICO Institutional Area, Sitapura, Mahatma Gandhi University of Medical Sciences & Technology, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India.
Coronavirus associated with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) has been identified as Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), first detected in Wuhan, Hubei province, China, the National Health Commission of China received reports of 27 cases of pneumonia, including seven severe cases of unknown origin, on 30th December 2019. In order to diagnose COVID-19, the virus responsible for the pandemic, SARS-CoV-2, was analysed for its Ribonucleic Acid (RNA). It is possible to detect specific sequences of genes encoding the RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP), nucleocapsid (I#INI?I), envelope (I#IEI?I), and spike (I#ISI?I) proteins of viruses using Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). There are four major groups of drugs recommended by treatment guidelines worldwide: antiviral drugs (eight drugs), antimalarial drugs (two drugs), systemic corticosteroids (five drugs), and immune-based therapy (seven drugs). The recommendations for the treatment with these drugs in all of the guidelines differ depending on the severity of the case and the health conditions of the patient. A successful preventative vaccine is the most important and time-sensitive measure in combating the COVID-19 pandemic. There were 12 SARS-CoV-2 vaccines approved/authorised for full or emergency use in various parts of the world as of 25th February 2021, with more than 200 million doses administered worldwide. Because the disease is still relatively new and healthcare is under considerable pressure, many questions remain unanswered. There is a lack of publications regarding the effectiveness and safety of these drugs in COVID-19 patients. In addition, community members with limited financial resources must still consider the costs associated with some of the proposed treatment regimens.