Comparative Study of Clinical and Radiological Profile and Outcome of COVID-19 Patients with and without Co-morbidities: A Cross-sectional Study
Dr. Nader Abdul Razak,
Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202002, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Introduction: Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) had devastating effects on the healthcare and economic sector worldwide. India stands second in the list of most number of COVID-19 cases. Most of the deaths due to COVID-19 were seen in patients with associated co-morbidities like hypertension, diabetes, chronic kidney disease and obesity. This study would like to examine specific co-morbidities in relation to the COVID-19 disease progression and outcomes.
Aim: To compare the clinicoradiological profile and outcome of COVID-19 in patients with and without co-morbidities (diabetes and hypertension).
Materials and Methods: The present observational, cross-sectional study was conducted at Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh between June 2020 to September 2020, after obtaining Institutional Ethics Committee (IEC) approval. A total of 148 patients with COVID-19 were included in the study. The COVID-19 patients admitted in the hospital were divided into four groups as those having only diabetes, only hypertension, both diabetes and hypertension, and those without any co-morbidities. Those with any other co-morbidity were excluded from the study. The general clinical characteristics, laboratory parameters, disease severity, morbidity and mortality were compared among various groups and the data was analysed. Categorical data were analysed using the Chi-square test.
Results: A total of 148 patients with COVID-19 were included in the study, of which 26 patients were diabetic, 36 were hypertensive, 24 were both hypertensive and diabetic and 62 patients didn’t had any significant co-morbidity. Severe COVID-19 disease was most commonly observed in those with diabetes (n=14) (53.8%). The highest proportion of patients requiring oxygen (84.6%) and Non Invasive Ventilator (NIV) support (46.1%) was also seen among diabetics. The presence of diabetes, severe disease and leukocytosis at presentation increased the risk of mortality. The association of hypertension with COVID-19 does not seem to affect the in-hospital mortality.
Conclusion: COVID-19 in diabetics is associated with both increased risk of severe disease and increased odds of death. In diabetics, those with uncontrolled diabetes were more prone to severe disease and death than those with good glycaemic control. Hypertension, on the other hand, showed no association.