Assessment of Level of Motivation, Locus of Control and their Associated Factors among Alcohol Dependent Males: A Longitudinal Study
Dr. Ashokkumar Vikram,
Assistant Professor, Department of Community Medicine, Tagore Medical College and Hospital, Rathinamangalam, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
Introduction: Alcohol dependence is a major health problem across the globe. Relapses are a characteristic feature of Alcohol Dependence Syndrome (ADS) with various factors studied to identify the ideal management options. Motivation levels are a reflection of an individual’s readiness to act on a new healthy behaviour. Locus of control reflects individuals’ beliefs about the degree of control they exert over their life events.
Aim: To assess the motivation level and locus of control in alcohol dependent males and determining their relationship with successful recovery.
Materials and Methods: This hospital-based, longitudinal was conducted at the Psychiatry Ward of a Tertiary Care Medical College and Hospital, Puducherry, India. Total 150 adult males, who fit the criteria for alcohol dependence as per International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). The motivation level and drinking pattern were assessed by the application of Readiness to Change Questionnaire and Rotter’s Locus of Control scale. Categorical data were presented as frequency and proportions. The Fisher’s-exact test was used to evaluate differences between groups for categorised variables.
Results: Total 150 patients were recruited for this study, the mean age was 37±5.6 years. Overall, 94 (62.7%) participants had their first drink at 18 to 24 years of age and 64 (42.7%) participants reported onset of dependence at the age of 26-30 years. Overall, 70 (46.7%) participants were in the precontemplation level of motivation, as assessed by the Readiness To Change Questionnaire. A majority (n=126, 84%) of the cases had an external locus of control and a majority of lapses happened during 1st and 2nd months of the study. Age and educational status were found to have statistically significant association with motivation. Level of education, socio-economic class, motivation, pattern of drinking and locus of control had statistically significant association with lapsed cases.
Conclusion: The locus of control of an individual, motivation level, and the pattern of drinking serve as prognosticators of lapse in patients with ADS. Individuals with poor motivation to change and those with an external locus of control require intensive follow-up and specific intervention programmes to prevent relapse.