Clinical and Radiological Features of Seizures in Children Admitted in the PICU at a Tertiary Care Hospital in North-eastern India: A Retrospective Study
Dr. Monalisa Bhoktiari,
Assistant Professor, Department of Paediatrics, Gauhati Medical College Hospital, Guwahati, Assam, India.
Introduction: A seizure is a brief change in normal electrical brain activity resulting in alterations in awareness, perception, behaviour, or movement, which affect persons of all ages, but are particularly common in childhood. Seizure is a serious neurological symptom in the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU), yet data on the clinical spectrum of seizures occurring in the PICU setting in India are scarce.
Aim: To determine the aetiology, clinical and radiological features of seizures in critically ill children admitted to PICU at a tertiary care hospital.
Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was conducted at Gauhati Medical College and Hospital, Guwahati, Assam, India, from April 2017 to September 2018. A total of 253 children aged between 29 days to 12 years, admitted to PICU with seizures were enrolled in the study. Data regarding demographics, diagnosis, clinical seizures, associated diagnosis, Electroencephalogram (EEG) features, imaging, length of stay in PICU, and in-hospital mortality were collected. Data was presented in frequencies, mean, standard deviation.
Results: In present study, male to female ratio was 1.5:1 with mean age of 48.9±44.5 months. The most common causes of seizures in PICU setting were acute symptomatic in 185 (73.1%) and epileptic in 68 (26.9%) patients. Central Nervous System (CNS) infections constituted 15.8% of the PICU admissions following seizures. Most frequent co-existent diagnosis at admission was infectious diseases in 96 (38%) patients, followed by pulmonary diseases in 28 (11%) and cardiologic diseases in 14 (5.5%).
Conclusion: CNS infections are the most common cause of acute symptomatic seizure, while non infectious diseases such as metabolic disorders, epilepsy and immune disorders also contribute to seizure occurrence in PICU. Identification of common seizure aetiologies in PICU is important step for a prompt and effective treatment.