Sonoelastographic Evaluation of Pelvic Adnexal Masses and its Association with Clinicopathological Findings at a Tertiary Care Centre in Western Uttar Pradesh, India
Dr. Ankur Malhotra,
Department of Radiology, Teerthankar Mahaveer Medical College and Research Centre, Moradabad, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Introduction: Despite advancements in cross-sectional aging techniques, ultrasonography continues to remain the first-line imaging modality for the preoperative assessment of pelvic adnexal masses. Ultrasound strain elastography is a novel technique that can characterise adnexal lesions based on their tissue stiffness and when used in conjunction with conventional USG, it may increase the precision of diagnosis and can act as a cost-effective viable ancillary tool.
Aim: To assess the role of strain sonoelastography in characterising the adnexal lesion as benign or malignant.
Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Radiodiagnosis, Teerthankar Mahaveer Medical College and Research Centre (TMMC&RC), Moradabad, Uttar Pradesh, India, for a period of 18 months (January 2020 to June 2021) and consisted of 110 patients with clinical suspicion of adnexal mass, who were evaluated on SIEMENS Acuson S 3000 scanner (from the total of 130 cases). Various morphological features of mass (size, laterality, consistency, echogenicity and internal contents) were assessed on Gray scale and vascularity was assessed on colour doppler Ultrasonography (USG). Subsequently, real time strain elastography (eSie touch) was performed to assess the tissue stiffness. Elasticity was indicated on a colour-coded elastogram map, with blue areas denoting hard tissue, green areas suggesting intermediate tissue, and red portions denoting soft tissues. The sonographic findings were compared with histopathological diagnosis. Sensitivity, specificity, Positive Predictive Value (PPV) and Negative Predictive Value (NPV) were calculated for Gray scale sonography in combination with Doppler (conventional ultrasound techniques) and in conjunction with elastography. The Chi-square test was applied for comparing the frequency and p-value less than 0.05 was considered to be significant.
Results: The mean age of study population was 36.35±14.82 years. On histopathology out of 110 patients, 95 (86.36%) had benign adnexal lesions and 15 (13.64%) had malignant adnexal lesions. The youngest patient was 16-year-old and eldest was 70 years and the mean age of the study population was 36.35 years. When conventional ultrasound technique was used alone for differentiating benign and malignant adnexal masses the sensitivity was 96.7%, specificity was 83%, PPV was 96.7% and NPV was 83% while on addition of sonoelastography the sensitivity increased to 98.9%, specificity increased to 93%, PPV increased to 98.9% and NPV increased to 93.7%.
Conclusion: Conventional ultrasound techniques should be combined with sonoelastography in a diagnostic system to achieve better characterisation and differentiation of benign and malignant adnexal masses.