Comparison of Morphometric Data of Upper End of the Tibia between North and East Indian Populations: A Cross-sectional Study
Flat No. 539, Railvihar, Anandapur, Kolkata-700107, West Bengal, India.
Introduction: Knee joint problems, such as Osteoarthritis (OA), primarily affect the upper weight-bearing end of the tibia. Total and unicompartmental knee arthroplasty are commonly performed as treatment options. However, existing studies on morphometric assessment of the knee joint mainly focus on the Western population, with a lack of data among the Indian population. Obtaining such data is crucial for designing tibial components of knee prostheses tailored to the Indian population.
Aim: To compare the morphometric data of the upper end of the tibia between the North and East Indian populations.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in the Department of Anatomy at FMHS Medical College, SGT University, Gurugram, Haryana, North India, involving 41 dry tibias, and at Medical College and Hospital Kolkata in East India, involving 43 dry tibias. Measurements of the Anteroposterior (AP) and Transverse Diameters (TD) of the Medial Tibial Condyle (MTC), Lateral Tibial Condyle (LTC), and Total Tibial Condyles (TTC) were performed using digital Vernier callipers with a least count of 0.01 mm. The data was statistically analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) (version 21.0), and Student’s t-test was applied, with p<0.05 considered significant.
Results: The mean TD and AP diameters of the tibial plateau were found to be greater in the East Indian population (TD: 65.47±5.46, AP: 44.29±4.36). In both samples, the AP diameter of MTC (North Indians: 38.30±3.54, East Indians: 40.63±3.46) was greater than that of LTC (North samples: 35.30±3.51, East samples: 35.70±3.96). When comparing parameters between the North and East samples using Student’s t-test, significant differences were found on the right-side for the mean AP (p-value=0.0065) and TD (p-value=0.0213) of TTC, mean AP (p-value=0.0006) and TD (p-value=0.0219) of MTC, mean TD of LTC (p-value=0.0002), mean AP (p-value=0.0005) and TD (p<0.0001) of the Intercondylar area at anterior ends, and mean AP (p<0.0001) and TD (p-value=0.0017) of the Intercondylar area at posterior ends. On the left-side, significant differences between the North and East population were found for mean TD of LTC (p-value=0.0348), AP (p<0.0001) and TD (p-value=0.0207) of the Intercondylar area posterior end. When comparing the areas between the North and East populations, significant differences were found on the right-side only for the MTC (p-value=0.0013), LTC (p-value=0.0083), and TTC (p-value=0.0055).
Conclusion: There are significant regional variations in the anthropometric measurements of the North and East Indian populations, emphasising the need to develop population-specific tibial prostheses for improved surgical outcomes.