Burden of Anaemia and its Impact on Lymphoma Patients in Southern Rajasthan, India: A Cross-sectional Study
Dr. Geeta W Mukhiya,
19, Ashirwad Nagar, Shobhagpura, Udaipur-313001, Rajasthan, India.
Introduction: The frequency of lymphoma is progressively rising. A key clinical feature of lymphoid malignancies is anaemia. The impact of anaemia goes beyond physical symptoms and can negatively affect functional capacity and Quality of Life (QoL). The presence of anaemia has been identified as a predictive factor for event-free and disease-free survival in patients diagnosed with lymphoma and is regarded as a significant unfavourable predictor for treatment results.
Aim: To investigate the prevalence and impact of anaemia in naive lymphoma patients.
Materials and Methods: This hospital-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Pathology at Geetanjali Medical College and Hospital, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India, from January 2019 to December 2022. A total of 66 patients diagnosed with lymphoid malignancies were included in the study. Various parameters of lymphoma cases were assessed to determine the presence of anaemia and its association with demographic features, disease stage, and haematological indices. Statistical analysis was carried out using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0 The Pearson's Chi-square test was used to analyse the difference in the prevalence of anaemia in different groups.
Results: The mean age of the study patients was 47.35±20.60 years .The present study included 66 patients with lymphoid malignancies and revealed a high incidence of anaemia among them, with 38 (57.58%) cases presenting with anaemia. There was a male predominance, with 52 (78.79%) out of 66 patients male. Out of the total number of patients, 36 (54.55%) were classified as having stage I and stage II disease, while 30 (45.45%) had stage III and stage IV based on age, Ann Arbor staging, extranodal involvement, Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) level, and lymphoma prognostic score. Differentiation between anaemic and non anaemic patients was made by statistical analysis. Based on the findings from the complete blood count, the patients were categorised according to the severity and type of anaemia. It was determined that 38 out of 66 patients, accounting for 57.58%, had anaemia.
Conclusion: Anaemia was more prevalent in younger patients and females. Microcytic hypochromic anaemia and Anaemia of Chronic Disease (ACD) were the most common types observed. Anaemia was associated with bone marrow infiltration and advanced disease stages. The present study emphasised the importance of early diagnosis and appropriate management of anaemia in lymphoma patients, as it can negatively impact treatment outcomes and reduce QoL.