Risk Assessment of Type II Diabetes using Indian Diabetic Risk Score in Andhra Pradesh, India: A Cross-sectional Study
Dr. P Sudha Kumari,
Flat 508, KPS Grand, Kurnool, Andhra-518002 Pradesh, India.
Introduction: Diabetes has emerged as a global pandemic of the 21st century, with approximately 463 million adults (aged 20-79 years) living with diabetes worldwide in 2019. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is the most common form of diabetes compared to Type 1 and other forms. The burden of diabetes in India is expected to increase in the coming years. The Indian Diabetes Risk Score (IDRS) is a validated and cost-effective tool used to identify the risk of developing diabetes among the population.
Aim: To estimate the risk of T2DM using the IDRS in adults aged 25 years and above. Additionally, the study aimed to explore the association between the risk of diabetes and other factors.
Materials and Methods: An observational, community-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in the field practice area of Kurnool Medical College, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India. Data collection took place from December 2022 to February 2023, using a simple random sampling technique. The study included residents aged over 25. A sample size of 100 participants was selected. The IDRS, developed by the Madras Diabetic Research Foundation (MDRF), was used as a validated tool to screen individuals at high-risk of developing T2DM. Data was collected using a semistructured questionnaire that included socio-demographic information, the IDRS tool to detect the risk of developing diabetes, and other risk factors such as Body Mass Index (BMI), family history of diabetes, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, and hypertension. Data analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23.0. The Chi-square test was used to determine significance, with a p-value of <0.05 considered significant.
Results: A total of 100 residents aged over 25 years were included in the study. IDRS categorisation revealed that 14 (14%) were at low risk, 43 (43%) at moderate risk, and 43 (43%) at high-risk for developing T2DM, respectively. A statistically significant association was observed between diabetes risk score and individuals who smoked (p=0.04), consumed alcohol (p=0.04), and had hypertension (p<0.001). BMI showed a positive correlation with IDRS score (p=0.031), family history score (p=0.028), and waist circumference score (p=0.034).
Conclusion: Early detection of the risk of diabetes through periodic screening and effective behavioural change communication could be instrumental in controlling the diabetes crisis.