Association of Obesity with Vitamin-D Deficiency and Anaemia: A Cross-sectional Study
Dr. Swati Hegde,
#24/1, 2nd Cross, ISEC Main Road, Nagarbhavi, Bengaluru-560072, Karnataka, India.
Introduction: Obesity is a growing health concern, especially in developing countries like India. Overweight and obesity are considered risk factors for numerous diseases, including micronutrient deficiencies. However, there is a lack of data on the association between vitamin-D status and anaemia in obesity. Therefore, this study was conducted in an urban setting where obesity is more prevalent.
Aim: To investigate the association between increased Body Mass Index (BMI) and vitamin-D deficiency and anaemia.
Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional observational study included 62 healthy overweight or obese adults from Ramaiah Medical College and Hospitals in Bengaluru, South India, from December 2021 to February 2022. Anthropometric measurements were taken, and blood investigations were conducted to estimate vitamin-D levels and haemoglobin levels. Pearson’s chi-square test was used to determine associations between the two groups.
Results: The study included (62) healthy adults, of whom 28 subjects (45.1%) were classified as obese (BMI ≥25 kg/m2) and 34 subjects (54.9%) were classified as overweight (BMI 23-24.9 kg/m2). There were 22 males and 40 females, with a mean age of 48.5 years. Vitamin-D deficiency was observed in 50 patients (80.6%). The prevalence of vitamin-D deficiency was higher in the obese group (n=23, 82.1%) compared to the overweight group (n=27, 79.4%), although this difference was not statistically significant. Anaemia was present in 14 patients (22.6%). Overweight males were more likely to be anaemic. Anaemia was observed more frequently in elderly overweight and obese patients and was statistically significant (p-value=0.039).
Conclusion: Vitamin-D deficiency and anaemia were seen as common problems in apparently healthy individuals with high BMI. This is a health concern that needs to be addressed, and early screening and appropriate treatment can help improve the quality of life.