Antiphospholipid Syndrome Complicated by Unilateral Pleural Effusion and Deep Vein Thrombosis: A Case Report
MBBS Intern, Department of Medicine, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Datta Meghe Institute of Higher Education and Research, Wardha, Maharashtra -442004, India.
Antiphospholipid Antibodies (APLA) are autoantibodies directed against phospholipid-binding proteins. The development of thromboses in veins/arteries or the incidence of maternal morbidity, particularly miscarriages, in the presence of APLA constitutes Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS). These Antiphospholipids (APLs) include antibodies against two glycoproteins, anticardiolipin antibodies, and Lupus Anticoagulant (LA). APLs are a diverse group of autoantibodies that have been linked to thrombus development, elevated maternal morbidity and mortality, and other symptoms that collectively constitute APS. Approximately half of APS cases are secondary disorders, while the remaining cases are autoimmune co-morbidities such as Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). This multisystem disorder mainly causes venous and arterial thrombosis and can also manifest as cutaneous, pulmonary, renal, and haematological involvement. APLA syndrome with pleural effusion is a rare complication. Patients with antiphospholipid syndrome can develop various types of pulmonary disease. The authors present the case of a 38-year-old male patient with a history of Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) and psoriasis, a known case of APLA syndrome, who presented with neck pain and breathlessness. Pulmonary embolism was ruled out, and the patient was discharged on oral anticoagulants. The present case highlights APLA as the culprit for the myriad presentations in the present case.