Bilateral Adrenal Masses with Different Aetiologies Presenting as Addisonian Crisis with Acute Kidney Injury: A Case Series
Pt.B.D. Sharma Pgims, Rohtak, Haryana-124001, India.
An Addisonian Crisis (AC) is an endocrinological emergency associated with high mortality, resulting from an acute deficit of hormones from the adrenal glands. It can occur either in a patient with known Adrenal Insufficiency (AI) or as the initial presentation of the disease. Primary Adrenal Insufficiency (PAI), which can be caused by autoimmune adrenalitis or tubercular adrenalitis, is the most common cause worldwide and particularly prevalent in developing countries like India. Other causes of PAI include infiltrative pathology, drugs, haemorrhage, or, rarely, malignancy. Secondary Adrenal Insufficiency (SAI) often occurs due to abrupt steroid withdrawal or defects at the level of the pituitary or hypothalamus. The present case series highlights three cases (three male patients) in which patients presented with adrenal crisis despite no prior history of AI. Subsequently, they were diagnosed with bilateral adrenal masses of different aetiologies, including primary adrenal malignancy and granulomatous infiltration of the adrenals due to Tuberculosis (TB). One case involved bilateral primary adrenal malignancy with left perirenal and pararenal space infiltration, while the other two patients were diagnosed with disseminated TB with adrenal gland infiltration. The presentation of all three cases was characterised by non specific symptoms. Initial management for all three patients involved mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid replacement, and they were discharged with corticosteroid supplements. However, the patient with bilateral adrenal malignancy was referred to the surgery and oncology department for further evaluation and management, whereas the remaining two patients were started on Antitubercular (ATT) drugs for definite treatment.