Clinicodermoscopic Study of Idiopathic Guttate Hypomelanosis at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Central India
Assistant Professor, Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy, Chirayu Medical College and Hospital, Bhopal-462030, Madhya Pradesh, India.
Introduction: Depigmented skin lesions are commonly encountered in day-to-day practice and can cause significant social stigma. They are challenging to diagnose clinically and histopathologically. Idiopathic Guttate Hypomelanosis (IGH), a pigmentary condition commonly affecting older individuals, can lead to cosmetic deformity and have a significant psychological impact. Dermoscopic evaluation offers a quick and easy way to resolve diagnostic confusion and prevent unnecessary biopsies.
Aim: To study the clinical and dermoscopic features of IGH.
Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional observational study was conducted in the Department of Dermatology, Venereology, and Leprosy at Chirayu Medical College and Hospital, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh (MP), India from July 2021 to June 2022. A total of 180 patients with IGH lesions underwent a detailed clinical history, dermatological and systemic examinations, followed by dermoscopic examination. The collected data were statistically analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0, and the results were tabulated in terms of distribution, frequency, and mean±Standard Deviation (±SD).
Results: Among the 180 patients, the most affected age group was 51-60 years. A total of 108 (60%) were females and 72 (40%) were males. The most common site of involvement was the distal part of the lower extremity in 152 (84.4%) cases, followed by the distal part of the upper extremity in 115 (63.8%) cases. A total of 46 (25.5%) patients had a history of excessive sun exposure. Additionally, 21 (11.6%) patients had other associated features of photoaging, such as xerosis, solar lentigo, seborrhoeic keratosis, freckles, and actinic keratosis. The most common dermoscopic pattern observed was amoeboid in 103 (57.2%) patients, followed by feathery in 41 (22.7%), petaloid in 23 (12.7%), nebuloid in 13 (7.2%), and a combination of patterns in six percent of patients.
Conclusion: The IGH was more common in females and older age groups, with the distal parts of the lower extremity being the most frequently involved site. Excessive sun exposure was a common risk factor for IGH, and several patients may have associated signs of photoaging. The most common dermoscopic pattern observed was amoeboid. Therefore, clinical dermoscopic examination can be helpful in identifying IGH and differentiating it from other depigmented lesions.