Facial Measurements and Their Correlation with Vertical Dimension of Occlusion in Dentate Subjects:
An Anthropometric Analysis
Dr. Sandeep Garg,
Head, Department of Prosthodontics, MMCDSR, MMDU, Ambala-133203, Haryana, India.
Introduction: In the field of prosthodontics, there lies a delicate balance between the preservation of supporting structures and the restoration of physiological function while providing complete denture prostheses to completely edentulous patients. A good prosthesis requires appropriate recording of the proper maxillo-mandibular relationship, including the vertical dimension of occlusion, which is a crucial step in complete denture fabrication. The reliability of anthropometric methods to determine the vertical dimension of occlusion has been widely discussed in the literature.
Aim: To evaluate the correlation of various facial measurements with the vertical dimension of occlusion in dentate subjects.
Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Prosthodontics at a Dental College in Ambala district of Haryana, India, from February 2021 to July 2023. A total of 100 subjects (50 females and 50 males) within the age range of 20-35 years were selected. Five facial parameters were selected to correlate with the vertical dimension of occlusion: the distance from glabella to subnasion, the distance from the outer canthus of one eye to the inner canthus of the other eye, the distance from the outer canthus to the rima oris, the distance from the outer canthus to the External Auditory Meatus (EAM) on the left side of the face, and the Interpupillary Distance (IPD). Facial measurements were recorded using a digital vernier calliper, while IPD was recorded using a PD ruler. Each measurement was made three times and recorded by a single operator. Once recorded, all the measurements were tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis using the Pearson’s correlation coefficient test. Regression analysis was also conducted to formulate a regression equation for determining the vertical dimension of occlusion.
Results: The mean Vertical Dimension of Occlusion (VDO) for males was 59.29±6.48 mm, and for females, it was 52.34±5.92 mm. The results showed a positive and significant (p-value<0.05) correlation between the vertical dimension of occlusion and facial measurements such as glabella to subnasion (p-value for males: 0.001, p-value for females: <0.001), outer canthus to inner canthus (p-value for males: 0.01, p-value for females: <0.001), outer canthus to rima oris (p-value for males: <0.001, p-value for females: <0.001), and outer canthus to EAM (p-value for males: 0.007, p-value for females: 0.001) in both males and females. However, there was no significant correlation between IPD and VDO (p-value for males: 0.296, p-value for females: 0.66) in both genders.
Conclusion: It can be concluded that facial measurements could be taken into consideration for determining the vertical dimension of occlusion in completely edentulous patients in conjunction with other reliable methods.