Morphometric analysis of the Proximal End of the Dry Adult Tibia : A Cross-sectional Study from Eastern India
Dr. Jami Sagar Prusti,
Professor and Head, Department of Anatomy, MKCG Medical College and Hospital, Berhampur, Odisha, India.
Introduction: The morphometric measurement of the proximal tibia plays an important role in determining the clinical outcome of Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA), including long-term survivorship and quality of life for patients. However, due to ethnic and geographical variations in these measurements, findings from western countries cannot be directly applied to the Asian population or any other subpopulation.
Aim: To describe the anatomical morphometry of the proximal tibia in the East Indian population and to explore any associations of these measurements with sex and laterality.
Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Anatomy, MKCG Medical College, Berhampur, Odisha, India, from August 2020 to August 2022. A total of 200 fully ossified, dry, and processed bones from both sides, which were grossly normal and complete, were obtained from the Department of Anatomy of various medical colleges in Odisha, India. Different measurements of the tibia, such as Mediolateral Length (ML), anteroposterior length of the medial and lateral condyles, circumference, intercondylar region, and tibial tuberosity, were measured using standard procedures and standardised vernier calipers. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 27.0 (IBM Corporation, Armonk, New York, USA). A comparison of means between two groups was conducted using an independent sample t-test, and correlation between two quantitative variables was assessed using Pearson correlation.
Results: Out of the included bones, 114 (57%) were male tibiae, and 116 (58.0%) were right-side tibiae. The ML, anteroposterior length of the lateral and medial condyles, intercondylar area, tibia to tibial tuberosity length, and circumference were measured as 67.91 mm, 39.44 mm, 42.72 mm, 42.73 mm, 33.48 mm, and 19.37 mm, respectively. The ML showed a significant positive correlation (p-value <0.001) with the anteroposterior length of the lateral tibial plateau, medial tibial plateau, and intercondylar area, with correlation coefficients (r) values of 0.726, 0.762, and 0.747, respectively. All morphometric parameters were comparable between the right and left sides of the tibia. ML, anteroposterior length of the lateral and medial condyles, intercondylar area, circumference, and tibia to tibial tuberosity length were significantly higher in males compared to females.
Conclusion: This study provides a description of the morphometric parameters of the tibia among the Eastern Indian population. Although there was no significant difference in laterality, the parameters of male tibiae were significantly higher compared to females.