Altered Liver Function Test in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Subjects and its Association with Dyslipidaemia and Fasting Blood Sugar: A Cross-sectional Study
Dr. S Sindu Priya,
Associate Professor, Department of Biochemistry, Annapoorana Medical College and Hospital, Kombadipatti, Sankari Main Road, Salem-636308, Tamil Nadu, India.
Introduction: Multiple organ systems are affected due to the metabolic dysregulation associated with Diabetes Mellitus (DM). Altered lipoprotein metabolism and liver enzymes have been identified as independent risk factors for the development of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD). Routine screening of liver function and ultrasound imaging of the liver should be done at the time of diagnosis of type 2 DM and thereafter at regular intervals.
Aim: To determine the association between liver function parameters and glycemic status in type 2 diabetics. Additionally, the study aimed to correlate liver enzymes and lipid profiles in Type 2 DM patients.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from August 23rd, 2021 to October 23rd, 2021 on 100 Type 2 diabetic patients attending the diabetic Outpatient Department of Biochemistry, at Annapoorana Medical College and Hospital, Salem, Tamil Nadu, India. Fasting glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL) were measured using the direct enzymatic method, while Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL) was calculated using Friedewald’s formula. Total bilirubin, Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST), Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), total protein, and albumin were analysed using the ERBA EM-200 auto analyser based-on the wet chemistry principle. Pearson’s correlation analysis was performed to examine the relationship between variables.
Results: Among the total of 100 type 2 diabetic patients who participated in present study, 59 were males and 41 were females. The mean±SD age of diabetic patients was 51.23±10.810 years, ranging between 35 and 76 years. The frequency of altered liver enzymes in the study sample was found to be 33, with 25 being males and 8 being females. The mean fasting blood sugar levels with normal liver function and abnormal liver function were observed to be 128.37±13.16 mg/dL and 133.79±15.68 mg/dL, respectively, but the difference was not statistically significant. The mean values of total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein with normal liver function were observed to be 137.18±34.44 mg/dL, 175.12±65.19 mg/dL, and 75.55±9.78 mg/dL, respectively, while with abnormal liver function, they were observed to be 196.05±52.67 mg/dL, 143.28±47.63 mg/dL, and 138.83±38.11 mg/dL, respectively, showing statistical significance.
Conclusion: The present study found a strong association between deranged liver enzymes with fasting blood sugar and dyslipidaemia.