Pathogenicity and Antibiotic Resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A Comprehensive Review
Ph.D Scholar, Department of Microbiology, Integral Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Lucknow-226026, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) presents a complex challenge in terms of pathogenicity and antibiotic resistance. This versatile pathogen adeptly colonises various host tissues and evades the immune system through its intricate virulence factors. The review delves into the antimicrobial resistance mechanisms at play, which encompass inherent resistance characteristics and those acquired through genetic mutations and horizontal gene transfer. Notably, efflux pump systems and limited membrane permeability underpin its inherent resistance, rendering many conventional antibiotics ineffective. Multidrug Resistant (MDR) strains are on the rise, posing a substantial threat to patient care and infection control. In response, innovative strategies are being explored, including combination therapies to enhance the effectiveness of existing antibiotics and drug repurposing, redirecting existing medications to target P. aeruginosa. Phage therapy, which leverages bacteriophages to combat P. aeruginosa infections, is gaining attention as a promising solution. Infection prevention and control are pivotal, particularly in healthcare settings, to curtail the spread of P. aeruginosa. Surveillance programs are crucial for monitoring the prevalence and dissemination of antibiotic-resistant strains and guiding response strategies during outbreaks. Comprehending P. aeruginosa’s complex virulence and resistance mechanisms is paramount for developing efficient treatments and effective infection control measures. Ongoing research and collaborative efforts are instrumental in mitigating the substantial impact of P. aeruginosa infections on public health, underscoring the need for sustained vigilance and innovation in infectious disease management.