Respiratory Syncytial Virus-related Lower Respiratory Tract Infections in Neonatal and Post-neonatal Babies: A Series of Four Cases
Darshan Rajatadri Rangaswamy,
NH-13, Purle, Shimoga-577201, Karnataka, India.
Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is a highly contagious seasonal virus that is the leading cause of acute Lower Respiratory Tract Infections (LRTI) in the paediatric age group and is one of the leading causes of death in children under five in developing countries. There is evidence that severe RSV infection and hospitalisation in early life increase the risk of recurrent wheezing, childhood asthma, and allergic sensitisation. Even though RSV being a major global health concern, very few papers concentrate on the neonatal period in India. The present case series presents four cases (three females and one male baby) highlighting the impact of RSV in neonatal and post-neonatal infants in India. The cases highlight the diversity of presentation; one infant required prolonged High-flow Nasal Cannula (HFNC) support, while two needed just symptomatic care. The importance of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in resource-constrained situations is highlighted as diagnostic issues are examined. Treatment focuses on supportive care; oxygen and respiratory support are provided in more severe cases. The present study emphasises the need for early detection and preventative measures, such as using novel treatments like nirsevimab. The present case series advocates for focused therapies and additional research in the Indian paediatric environment, adding insightful perspectives to the expanding body of knowledge on RSV.