Effects of Haemodialysis on Anterior Segment Parameters of the Eye in Patients with End-stage Renal Disease: A Cross-sectional Study
Dr. Kalyani Ravindra Lohokare,
768/7-8, Madhumati Apartment, Deccan Gymkhana, Behind P.Y.C. Ground, Pune-411004, Maharashtra, India.
Introduction: Ocular manifestations of Haemodialysis (HD) are one of the important causes of morbidity in End-stage Renal Disease (ESRD) patients. According to studies, the incidence rate of glaucoma in the dialysis group was higher than that in the non dialysis group. Angle-closure glaucoma was found to be more common, which depends on anterior chamber morphology.
Aim: To assess the effect of HD on Intraocular Pressure (IOP), Anterior Chamber Depth (ACD), and Lens Thickness (LT) in patients with ESRD.
Materials and Methods: This was a single-centre cross-sectional observational study conducted in the Department of Ophthalmology on 170 eyes of 87 patients undergoing HD for at least three months. The study was conducted between October 2020 and October 2022 at the Dialysis Centre of Bharati Vidyapeeth (DTU) Medical College and Hospital, Pune, Maharashtra, India. These patients underwent ophthalmological evaluation pre- and postdialysis. IOP, ACD, and LT were measured 30 minutes prior to and 30 minutes after the HD session. The paired t-test was used to compare differences in means, and a p-value of <0.05 was considered significant.
Results: The mean age of the study participants was 57.63±11.95 years. There was a decrease in mean ACD by 0.08±0.29 mm (p=0.0001) and an increase in mean LT by 0.06±0.42 mm (p-value=0.0001) postdialysis. The changes in IOP were variable and not statistically significant (p=0.45).
Conclusion: Postdialysis, a significant increase in LT was observed corresponding to a decrease in ACD. Although the change in IOP was variable, this change might be more significant in pre-existing narrow-angle patients undergoing dialysis. As a result, the present study underscores the urgency of refining screening protocols for HD patients to effectively address these identified ocular changes and associated risks.