Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

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Dr Mohan Z Mani

"Thank you very much for having published my article in record time.I would like to compliment you and your entire staff for your promptness, courtesy, and willingness to be customer friendly, which is quite unusual.I was given your reference by a colleague in pathology,and was able to directly phone your editorial office for clarifications.I would particularly like to thank the publication managers and the Assistant Editor who were following up my article. I would also like to thank you for adjusting the money I paid initially into payment for my modified article,and refunding the balance.
I wish all success to your journal and look forward to sending you any suitable similar article in future"

Dr Mohan Z Mani,
Professor & Head,
Department of Dermatolgy,
Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018

Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."

Dr Kalyani R
Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018

Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
‘Knowledge is treasure of a wise man.’ The free access of this journal provides an immense scope of learning for the both the old and the young in field of medicine and dentistry as well. The multidisciplinary nature of the journal makes it a better platform to absorb all that is being researched and developed. The publication process is systematic and professional. Online submission, publication and peer reviewing makes it a user-friendly journal.
As an experienced dentist and an academician, I proudly recommend this journal to the dental fraternity as a good quality open access platform for rapid communication of their cutting-edge research progress and discovery.
I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."

Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
On Sep 2018

Dr. Arunava Biswas

"My sincere attachment with JCDR as an author as well as reviewer is a learning experience . Their systematic approach in publication of article in various categories is really praiseworthy.
Their prompt and timely response to review's query and the manner in which they have set the reviewing process helps in extracting the best possible scientific writings for publication.
It's a honour and pride to be a part of the JCDR team. My very best wishes to JCDR and hope it will sparkle up above the sky as a high indexed journal in near future."

Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata

Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".

Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".

Dr. Mamta Gupta
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018

Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.

Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."

Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
On May 11,2011

Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."

Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
On April 2011

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.

Dr. Anuradha
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Year : 2007 | Month : June | Volume : 1 | Issue : 3 | Page : 188 - 197 Full Version

Staphylococcus Aureus Enterotoxins: A Review

Published: June 1, 2007 | DOI:

Dept. Of Biotechnology, Punjabi Univ., Patiala, Punjab, India.

Correspondence Address :
Dr. Aruna Bhatia, Professor, Dept. Of Biotechnology, Punjabi Univ., Patiala, Punjab, India. Phone Number: 0175-2283088, 09815913588. Fax Number: 0175-282881, 0175-283073. E-mail:


Food-borne diseases are of major concern worldwide. To date, 250 different food-borne diseases have been described and bacteria are the causative agents of two thirds of food-borne disease outbreaks. Food poisoning is a term used to express any type of disease, illness or malaffect after consuming food. The most serious type of food poisoning is bacterial food poisoning, which may be due to bacterial infection or food intoxication. Among the predominant bacteria involved in these diseases, Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of gastroenteritis resulting from the consumption of a food in which enterotoxigenic staphylococci have grown and produced toxins. As these toxins are excreted from the organism, they are referred to as exotoxins; however, they normally exert their effects on the gastrointestinal tract and therefore are called enterotoxins. While not considered a highly lethal agent due to the low mortality associated with the illness, staphylococcal enterotoxins are considered a potential biological threat because of their stability at high temperatures (100°C for 1 h) and ability to incapacitate individuals for several days to two weeks. Here, a brief review on Staphylococcal enterotoxins is given.


Staphylococcus aureus, Food poisoning, Enterotoxins

Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of food borne infections in most of the countries of the world (1),(2) Especially in India, rate of infection is still higher because of warm and humid climate. Staphylococcus aureus is a facultative anaerobic gram-positive coccus, non-motile, catalase and coagulase positive of the micrococcaceae family. In 1884, Rosenbach described the two pigmented colony types of staphylococci and proposed the appropriate nomenclature: Staphylococcus aureus (yellow) and Staphylococcus albus (white). The latter species is now named Staphylococcus epidermidis. S. aureus colonizes mainly the nasal passages, but it may be found regularly in most other anatomical locales. S epidermidis is an inhabitant of the skin. In humans S. aureus is present on external sites, such as the nostrils (3),(4) or the skin (5) and also transiently in the oropharynx(6)and faeces(7). Up to 30-50% of the human populations are carriers. Staphylococcus aureus is able to grow in a wide range of temperatures (7° to 48.5°C with an optimum of 30 to 37°C), pH (4.2 to 9.3, with an optimum of 7 to 7.5) and sodium chloride concentrations up to 15% NaCl (8). The staphylococcal cell wall is resistant to lysozyme and sensitive to lysostaphin, which specifically cleaves the pentaglycin bridges of Staphylococcus spp. The various isolates of S. aureus show different characteristics features in their susceptibility/resistance towards antibiotics. Some S. aureus strains are able to produce staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) and are the causative agents of staphylococcal food poisonings. Staphylococcus aureus is able to grow in a wide range of temperatures (7° to 48.5°C with an optimum of 30 to 37°C), pH (4.2 to 9.3, with an optimum of 7 to 7.5) and sodium chloride concentrations up to 15% NaCl (8). These characteristics enable S. aureus to grow in a wide variety of foods. Staphylococcus aureus strains can be classified into biotypes according to their human or animal origin like human, non-hemolytic human, avian, bovine, ovine, and nonspecific(9).

Pathogenesis of S. aureus infections
The pathogenicity of Staphylococcus aureus is due to the toxins, invasiveness and antibiotic resistance. S.aureus is major cause of nosocomial and community acquired infections (10),(11),(12). It is present as a normal flora of human beings and colonizes skin, but may become pathogenic and result in minor skin infections and abscesses, to life-threatening diseases such as pneumonia, meningitis, endocarditis, toxic shock syndrome (TSS), septicemia, mastitis, phlebitis, urinary tract infections, osteomyelitis and endocarditis.

Adherence to host cell proteins
S. aureus cells attach thought surface proteins to host cell’s surface proteins e.g., laminin and fibronectin. In addition, most strains express a fibrin/fibrinogen binding protein (clumping factor) which promotes attachment to blood clots and traumatized tissue. Most strains of S. aureus express both fibronectin, fibrinogen-binding proteins and collagen binding proteins on surface.

The invasion of host tissues by staphylococci apparently involves the production of a huge array of extra cellular, proteins, toxins, enzymes, proteins having affinity for Igs (13).

Alpha, Beta,Delta and leukocidins are the common toxins found in S.aureus. Alpha toxin most potent membrane-damaging toxin of S. aureus is a monomer and binds to the membrane of susceptible cells through receptors. Subunits then oligomerize to form heptameric rings with a central pore through whic


Staphylococcal food poisoining is of major concern in public health programs worldwide. Predictive models for S. aureus growth and SE production would be powerful tools for microbial risk assessment in food industries. However, many factors affect S. aureus growth and SE production in
foodstuffs and further studies are still necessary in order to develop such predictive tools. Proper storage of food is an important part of reducing the risk of food poisoning. Foods must be stored in the refrigerator and eaten within a short period of time, other foods, such as flour, pulses, canned foods and many others last much longer and can be stored at room temperature. Dried foods too have limited shelf life. The microbes on our food that can cause poisoning are usually temperature controlled by heating (cooking) and/or chilling (refrigerating) the food. While reusing the refrigerated food, one should heat it properly if need to be restored or eaten after sometime. Because simply warming at temperature not very high (20 o C- 45 o C) activates the spores which start reproducing and reuse of the same food gets contaminated with active bacteria. Not only this, the quantity of bacteria also rises due to bacterial multiplication. Though bacteria are limited to the foods but given the chance they can easily spread around the kitchen – via our hands, chopping boards, cloths, knives and other utensils and even through fomites also. They may cross-contaminate other foods – especially cooked and ready-to-eat foods. Good kitchen and personal hygiene practices as well cooked foods are important to help control the consumption of contaminated foods and hence food poisoning. Considerable research effort is still required for better understanding of the interactions between S. aureus and the food matrix and of the mechanisms of SE production in foodstuffs. Research is also needed for the identification of new SEs and of new enterotoxigenic staphylococci. Much effort is being applied towards the development of new and more sensitive methods for SE detection in foodstuffs. Taken together, these studies should lead to better control and a subsequent reduction of staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks.

Conflict of Interest: None declared


Bergdoll MS. Staphylococcus aureus In: Doyle MP(ed) Food borne Bacterial Pathogens, Marcel Dekper, Inc: New York 1989; 463-523. Zahoor S, Bhatia A. Bacteria: Silent Killers in Food. Science Reporter 2007; 33-34.
Zahoor S, Bhatia A. Bacteria: Silent Killers in Food. Science Reporter 2007; 33-34
Ostfeld E, Segal J, Segal A, Bogokovski B. Bacterial colonization of the nose and external ear canal in newborn infants. Isr J Med Sci 1983; 19(12):1046-49
Namura S, Nishijima S, Higashida T, Asada Y. Staphylococcus aureus isolated from nostril anteriors and subungual spaces of the hand: comparative study of medical staff, patients, and normal controls. J Dermatol 1995; 22(3):175-80
Noble WC. Skin bacteriology and the role of Staphylococcus aureus in infection. Br J Dermatol 1998; 139 Suppl 53:9-12.
Smith AJ, Jackson MS, Bagg J. The ecology of Staphylococcus species in the oral cavity. J Med Microbiol 2001; 50(11):940-6.
Arvola T, Ruuska T, Keranen J, Hyoty H, Salminen S, Isolauri E. Rectal bleeding in infancy: clinical, allergological, and microbiological examination. Pediatrics 2006; 117(4):e760-8.
Schmitt M, Schuler-Schmid U, Scmidt-Lorenz W. Temperature limits of growth, TNase, and enterotoxin production of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from foods. Int J Food Microbiol 1990; 11: 1-19.
Devriese LA. A simplified system for biotyping Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from different animal species. J Appl Bacteriol 1984; 56: 215-220.
Cookson B, Phillips I. Epidemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Antimicrob Chemother 21 (Suppl. C): 1998; 57-65.
Maple PAC, Hamilton-Miller MT, Brumfitt W. Worldwide antibiotic resistance in methicillin Staphylococcus aureus. Lancet i 1989; 537-540.
Wenzel RP, Nettleman MD, Jones RN, Pfaller MA. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus: implications for the 1990s and effective control measures. Am J Med 1991; 91 (Suppl.3B) 221S-227S.
Tables and Figures
[Table / Fig - 1] [Table / Fig - 2]

JCDR is now Monthly and more widely Indexed .